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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When does the cardio vascular system begin to develop?
During the 3rd week of embryonic development.

Around day 17-19

Heart starts beating on day 22-23
Why does heart tube develop?
Out of necessity to establish circulation to deliver nutrients throughout the body.

One of the first organs to develop.
Angiogenic cells/ Angioblastic cords
Become paired endothelial heart tubes from splanchnopleuric mesoderm

Leteral folding brings them together to fuse into 1 endocardial tube by day 22
4 layers of the heart tube
Endothelial lining
Cardiac Jelly (CT)
Thick musclar layer
Serous epicardium
5 primitive heart tube dilatations/dilations
Develop into adult structures of heart

Truncus arteriousus (aorta, pulmonary artery)

Bulbus cordis (rt ventricle & outlet of ventricles)

Primitive ventricle (inlet of ventricles)

Primitive atrium (right and left atria)

Sinus venosus (part of right atrium)
Atrioventricular Septum AV
Atrioventricular cushions grow together and fuse to form the AV septum and future AV valves
Aorticopulmonary Septum AP
Divides the truncus (aorta ad pulmonary arteries) arteriosus and bulbus cordis in the aorta and pulmonary trunks
Interventricular septum IV
Grows from floor of ventricle toward the fused Atrioventricular AV cushions
Ductus areteriosus
Shunt in pulmonic artery to the aorta
Transitional circulation
3 shunts close:
Foramen ovale (ligamntum arteriosum)

Ductus arteriosus (ligamentum arteriosum)

Ductus venosus (ligamentum venosum)
Intrinsic conduction system
Sinotrial node impulse generating tissue in right atrium

AV node

Bundle of HIS

Bundle branch fibers
Purkinje fibers
Name the TORCHHes

Cause congenital anomalies
Toxoplasmosis (avoid cat litter)

Other: Parvovirus B19, VZV (chicken pox), Syphilis, HIC

Rubella: major cardiac defects

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

Contraindications in pregnancy
Drugs: alcohol, accutane, cat X

Botanical Meds: podophyllum

Nutritional supplements: vit A

Accupuncture: L14

Homeopahthy: Ledum
Congenital Heart Defects (CHD)

Cyanotic vs Acyanotic
Cyanotic: Rt to Lft shunt of blood (blue baby)

Acyanotic: left to rt shunt of blood
Ventricular septal defect
Left ventricle to right ventricle leak
PDA Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Usually closes within a few hours or days after birth

Blood that shuld circulate through the body is misdireted to the lungs.
Pulmonary valve stenosis
narrowing of the pulmonary valve

hyertrophy of right ventricle
Aortic valve stenosis
narrows or obstructs the aortic valve opening making it difficult to pump blood into aorta
Coarctation of aorta
narrowing or constriction on a portion of the aorta

forces heart to pump harder to get blood through aorta
tetralogy of fallot
combination of 4 congenital abnormalities:

pulmonary valve stenosis

(Rt ventricular hypertrophy)

overriding/misplaced aorta

ventricular septal defect (VSD)

Result in insufficient amoutn of oxygenated blood reaching the body
Transposition of great arteries
Positions of the aorta and pulmonary artery are reversed
What does the region of AV canal develop into?
Mitral and tricuspid valves
What accompanies the partitioning of the atrium?
Both septum primum and secondum
Tetrology of fallot includes...?
Stenosis of pulmonary valve

Hypertrophy of right ventricle

IV defect

Overriding aorta
The heart is derrived from?
neither the ectoderm nor the endoderm
True or False:

The CV system begins to develop during the 3rd week?
When do blood islands start to develop?
Day 17-18
How many pairs of aortic arches?

Where do they grow from?
6 pairs

Grow from truncus arteriosus and dorsal aorta
Name the aortic arches
1: maxillary a
2: stapedial a
3. R & L common carotid aa
R & L internal carotid aa.
4: R subclavian a. &
Arch of aorta
5: regresses in humans
6: R & L pulmonary aa.
& Ductus areteriosus
Where does the dorsal aorta fuse
Between T4 and L$
Lateral sprouts o the dorsal aorta?

Lateral? Dorsolateral? Ventral?
Intersegmental aa

Lateral Sprouts:
Suprarenal glands, Kidneys, gonads.
Where does the venous system develop from?
Vitelline vv: Inferior vena cava IVC, hepatic v, sinusoids, ductus venosus, portal v, inferior mesenteric v, splenic v.

Umbilical vv.: rt. degenerates early, L hepatic sinusoids and ligamentum teres

Cardinal vv:
anterior: SVC, internal jugular v
Posterior: IVC, common iliac v
Subcardinal: IVC renal vv, gonodal vv
Supracardinal: IVC, intercostal vv, heiazygos v, azygos v.
What hormones does the placenta produce?

HPL (Human placental lactogen: elevates levels of free fatty acids)

What are some harmful substances that pass the placenta?

Cat X drugs: (totally conraindication in preg)

Cat D: risk to fetus Tetracycline
Substances that do not cross placental membrane
Protein hormones (insulin)

Drugs: Heparin, curare, amino acid