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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Foregut
5 structures and blood supply
Pharynx
THoracic esophagus
Abdominal esophagus
Stomach
Superior half of duodenum

Blood supply: celiac artery
Midgut
7 structures
Blood supply
Inerior half of duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum
Cecum
Appendix
Ascending colon
Right 2/3 of transverse colon

Blood supply: superior mesenteric artery
Hindgut
4 structures
Blood supply
Left 1/3 of transverse colon
Descending colon
Sigmoid colon
Rectum

Blood supply - intferior mesenteric
Somatopleuric mesoderm
lines the inside of the body wall
Splanchnopleuric mesoderm
lines the external surface of the gut and the visceral organs derived from the gut tube
Intraperitoneal
Thin bilayered dorsal mesentery that suspends the abdominal viscera in the coelomic cavity
Retroperitoneal
Visceral organs that develop in the dorsal body wall and are separated from the coelom by the covering of the serous membrane (no mesentery, rather peritoneum).
Secondarily retroperitoneal
Definition and organs
Organs that are initially suspended by mesentary and later become fused to the body wall.

Ascending colon, descending colon, duodenum, and pancreas
Retoperitoneal organs
Kidneys and bladder
Formation of the pericardial sac and diaphragm
Between weeks 5 and 7

Subdivides the coelom into four cavities
Septum transversum
Partially separates thoracic and abdominal cavities

Moves caudally elongating the phrenic nerves
Pericardial sac
Formed from pleuropericardial folds (pericardium from future lungs)
Peuropericardial folds
Separate pleural and pericardial cavities.

Originate from the lateral body walls

Fused with foregut mesenchyme

Creates 3 compartments:
Ventral pericardial cavity
2 dorsolateral plerual cavities (communicate with peritoneal cavity via the pericardioperitoneal canals)
4 things that contribute to the diaphragm
2 pleuroperitoneal membranes
Septum transversum
Muscular growth from body wall
Esophagus mesenchyme
3 layers of pericardial folds
Mediastinal pleura: outer layer of mesoderm

Fibrous pericardium: mesenchyme

Serous pericardium: inner layer of mesoderm
Lung development
Start to form in week 4 and mature just before birth

Lung bud grows ventrocaudally through mesenchyme surrounding foregut

Bifurcation followed by 16 branching events in both buds generates respiratory trees of two lungs
Terminal bronchioles
week 6

small branches
Respiratory bronchioles
weeks 16-28

when each terminal bronchiole divides into two or more respiratory bronchioles
What regulates the branching pattern of lungs?
Surrounding mesoderm

Becomes highly vascularized
Terminal sacs
week 36

Stubby branches sprouted from bronchioles become invested in a dense network of capillaries called terminal sacs (primitive alveoli with cuboidal epithelium)

Cuboidal converts to squamous for gas exchange

continue to form as late as age 8
Cystic fibrosis
Can't get rid of mucus (mucociliary escalator doesn't work well
Surfactant proteins
respiratory distress may resul from failure to produce these

Develops during week 36 and 38 is full term

Problem with premies
Embryonic folding

definition
vertebrate body form arises through cephalocaudal and lateral flexion in week 4.
Embryonic folding events
formation of primitive gut tube

formation of intraembryonic coelom

partitioning of the intraembryonic coelom

components of and positional changes of the diaphragm
What kind of folding establishesthe definitive embryonic body form?
ventral folding ofthe lateral margins of the embryonic disc

Brings amnion from dorsal surface of embryo around the sides to the ventral surface, eventually amnion covers whole embryo
What forms the midgut

What does midgut become
remaining yolk sac that is drawn up into the embryo

Eventually will form small instetine
How does the Foregut form?
Develops due to head fold causing the cranial part ofthe yolk sac to be drawn un into the embryo
How does the Hindgut form?

Cloaca?
Caudally the nerual tube extends over the cloacal (both feces and urine) membrane causing the caudal part of the olk sac to be drawn up into the embryo

will dilate to form the cloaca which will give rise to the bladder and rectum.
Vitelline duct
related to yolk sac

assists in communication with yolk sac and the mid portion of gut - related to
Gut tube
gut tube is created by the fusion of the endoderm of the germ disc

fusion of ectoderm creates the skin
Dorsal Mesentery
suspends the gut from the posterior wall of the peritoneal cavity
Ventral mesentery
Formed by thinning of the caudal part of the septum transversum transversum

Connects developing stomach and liver to the anterior body wall.