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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What happens during week one?
Implantation (Blastocyst)
Week Two?
Bilaminar disc (epiblast:hypoblast)
Week Three?
What is the rule of two's?
2 germ layers: (bilaminar disc): epiblast & hypoblast

2 cavities: Amnionic cavity & yolk sac

2 components of the placenta: cytotrophoblast & syncytiotrophoblast
Rule of 3's for week 3?
3 germ layers (gastrula) ectoderm (from epiblast), endoderm & mesoderm (from invagination of epiblast into the primitive streak)
What forms from neural crest?
Neural plate.
What forms from neural plate?
Neural Tube
Most susceptible to Teratogens during which weeks?
3rd - 8th week.
What is purpose of the 2 umbilical arteries?
return oxygenated blood from fetal internal iliac arteries
Purpose of the fetal umbilical vein?
supplies oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus
Fn. of the alantoic duct?
Removes nitrogeneous waste (from fetal bladder, like the urethra).
What is a single unbilical artery assoc. with?
Congenital and chromosomal anomalies
Truncus arteriosus gives rise to...
Ascending aorta & pulmonary trunk
Bulbus cordis gives rise to...
Smooth parts of the left and right ventricle
Primitive ventricle gives rise to...
Trabeculated parts of the left and tight ventricle.
Primitive atria gives rise to...
Trabeculated Left and Right atrium
Left horn of sinus venosus (SV) gives rise to...
Coronary sinus
Right horn of SV gives rise to...
Smooth part of the right atrium
Right common cardinal vein and right anterior cardinal vein give rise to...
Where does fetal erythropoiesis occur?
Young Liver Synthesizes Blood
Yolk sac
Bone marrow
What % of blood in the umbilical vein is saturated with oxygen?
What are the 3 important shunts in fetal circulation?
1. Most of the oxygenated blood reaching the heart via the IVC is diverted through the FORAMEN OVALE and pumped out the aorta to the head.

2. Deoxygenated blood from the SVC is expelled into the pulmonary artery and DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS to the lower body of the fetus.

3. Blood entering the fetus throught the unbilical vein is conducted via the DUCTUS VENOSUS into the IVC.
Fetal-postnatal derivatives -
Umbilical vein
Ligamentum teres hepatis
Fetal-postnatal derivatives -
UmbiLical arteries
MediaL umbilical ligaments
Fetal-postnatal derivatives -
Ductus aretriosus
Ligamentum arteriosum
Fetal-postnatal derivatives -
Ductus venosus
Ligamentum venosum
Fetal-postnatal derivatives -
Foramen ovale
Fossa ovalis
Fetal-postnatal derivatives -
(urachus: the part of the allantoic duct between the bladder and the umbilicus) MediaN umbilical ligament
Fetal-postnatal derivatives -
nucleus pulposus of the vertebral disc
Aortic arch derivatives -
1st part
part of MAXillary artery

HINT: 1st arch is MAXimal
Aortic arch derivatives -
Stapedial artery and hyoid artery

HINT: "S"econd = "S"tapedial
Aortic arch derivatives -
common Carotid artery and proximal part of ICA

HINT: C is the 3rd letter of the alphabet.
Aortic arch derivatives -
on left, aortic arch; on right, proximal part of the right subclavian artery.

HINT: 4th arch (4 limbs) = systemic
Aortic arch derivatives -
Proximal part of pulmonary arteries and (on the left only) ductus arteriosus.

HINT: 6th arch = Pulmonary and the pulmonary-to-systemic shunt (ductus arteriosus).
What is the Branchial apparatus (aka pharyngeal apparatus) composed of?
Clefts (aka grooves), Arches and Pouches (from outside to inside)
What germ layer are the branchial clefts, arches and pouches dervied from?
Clefts = Ectoderm
Arches = Mesoderm & neural crest cells
Pouches = Endoderm
Brachial arch 1 derivatives (cartilages, mm. & nn.)
Meckel's cartilage: Mandible, Malleus, incus, sphenoMandibular ligament.

Muscles: MM. of MASTICATION( Masseter, Temporalis, Later & Medial pterygoid), Mylohoid, anterior belly of digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, anterior 2/3 of tongue.

Nerve: CN V2 and CN V3
Brachial arch 2 derivatives (cartilages, mm. & nn.)
Reichert's cartilage: Stapes, Styloid Process, lesser horn of hyoid, Stylohoid ligament.

Muscles: MM. of FACIAL EXPRESSION, Stapedius, Stylohoid, posterior belly of digastric

Nerve: CN VII
Brachial arch 3 derivatives (cartilages, mm. & nn.)
Cartilage: Greater horn of hyoid.

Muscle: Stylopharyngeus

Nerve: CN IX

HINT: Think of pharynx!
Brachial arch 4-6 derivatives (cartilages, mm. & nn.)
Cartilages: Thyroid, cricoid, arytenoids, cuniform.

Muscles: 4th Arch - most of pharyngeal constrictors, CRICOTHYROID, levator veli palatini

6th Arch - All intrinsic mm. of larynx except cricothyroid.

Nerve: 4th arch - CN X (superior laryngeal br.)
6th arch - CN X (recurrent laryngeal br.)
Brachial arch 5 derivatives (cartilages, mm. & nn.)
Branchial Arch 5 makes no major developmental contributions.
What 3 structures are found in ever branchial pouch?
Artery, nerve, & cartilage.
Where do most CN originate?
in hindbrain
External Auditory meatus if derived from what branchial cleft?
1st cleft
What do the 2nd - 4th clefts temporarily form? And then what happens?
Temporarily form the cerivical sinuses, which are obliterated by proliferation of 2nd arch mesenchyme.
Persistent cervical sinus
Leads to a branchial cyst in the lateral neck, and thyroglossal duct cyst in midline neck.
Tongue development -
1st branchial arch forms _______
3rd and 4th branchial arches form _______
Motor innervation to tongue by _________
1st = anterior 2/3 (taste via CN VII and sensory via CN V3)
3rd and 4th = posterior 1/3 (taste via CN IX)
Motor innervation by CN XII.
From which arches are the bones of the ear developed?
Malleus = 1st
Incus = 1st
Stapes = 2nd
From which arches are the muscles of the ear, tensor tyMpani and Stapedius developed?
tensor tyMpani (V3) (same as Malleus) = 1st
Stapedius (VII) = 2nd
From which branchial structure (celft, arch or palate) is the external auditory meatus derived?
1st cleft.
From which structure is the eardrum and eustachian tube developed?
1st branchial membrane.