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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Grastulation involves the formation of the ____, _____, and _____.
notochord, germ layers, primitive streak
On day ____ a thickened band of ____ cells appears caudally in the midline of the embryonic disk. This is called ____.
15, epiblasts, primitive streak
The cranial end of the primitive streak is called the _____.
primitive knot (Hansens Node)
Cells that multiply in the epiblast and migrate toward the primitive streak and then migrate through the groove are called _____.
mesoderm
Mesoderm that form a layer between the epiblast and the hypoblast are called _______.
intraembryonic mesoderm
By the ___ week the primitive streak diminishes in size and becomes an insignificant structure in the _____ region.
4th, sacrococcygeal
Mesodermal cells migrate between the epiblast and hypoblasts in all regions, except the ____ and ____, which are ____ in origin.
prochordal, cloacal, endoderm
The prochordal plate is the furture site of the ____, and the cloacal plate is the future site of the ____.
mouth, anus
The prochordal plate and cloacal plate fuse with _____ to form the _____ and _____.
ectodermal cells, oropharyngeal membrane, cloacal membrane
The _____ mesoderm covers the yolk sac and amnion.
extraembryonic
Mesoderm that migrates around the prochordal plate form the ____ area.
cardiogenic
Mesodermal cells migrating from the primitive knot to the prochordal plate form the ____.
notochord
The ____ induces neural tube formation.
notochord
The ____ is the structure around which the vertebral column forms.
notochord
The notochord degenerates and exists as the ____.
nucleus pulposus
The ____ is associated with early blood formation and in formation of the urinary bladder.
allantosis (Day 16)
The blood vessels of the allantosis become the ____.
umbilical veins and arteries
Neurulation is the process involved in the formation of the ____, ____ and their closure to form the ____.
neural folds, neural plate, neural tube
Neurulation is completed by the end of the ___ week when the ___ closes.
4th, caudal end of the neuropore
The ____ overlying the notochord form the _____ plate.
ectoderm, neural
The ectoderm of the neural plate is called _____ and will give rise to the _____.
neuroectoderm, CNS
The surface ectoderm of the neural tube form the ____, ____, and ____, with the remaining surface ectoderm forming the ___.
lens, optic, nasal placodes, epidermis
The neural plate invaginates forming the ___ with 2 _____.
neural groove, neural folds
The neural folds fuse converting the ____ into a ____.
neural plate, neural tube( closes day 26)
____ cells resting along the crest of each neural fold seperate and form the _____.
Neuroectoderm, neural crest cells
Neural crest cells migrate and give rise to the ____ of the spinal and cranial nerves.
sensory ganglia
The CNS arises from the _____.
ectoderm
The PNS arises from the _____.
ectoderm
The sensory epithelium of the sensory organs arise from ___.
ectoderm
The epidermis, including hair, nails, cutaneous and mammary glands arise from _____.
ectoderm
The anterior pituitary gland arises from ____.
ectoderm
The enamel of the teeth arise from the ____.
ectoderm
Derivatives of the neural crest give arise from the ____.
ectoderm
The ____ proliferates and condenses to form 2 colums of paraxial mesoderm.
intraembryonic mesoderm
The ____ mesoderm thins out lateraly into a layer of ____ mesoderm.
intermediate, lateral
The ____ mesoderm differentiates into blocks of mesodermal tissure called somites by the end of the 3rd week.
paraxial
The paraxial mesoderm differentiates into blocks of mesodermal tissure called ____ by the end of the 3rd week.
somites
Dermatomes form ____.
dermis
Myotomes form _____.
muscle cells
Sclerotomes form _____.
vertebrae and ribs
The ____ mesoderm form the kidneys and gonads
intermediate
The lateral mesoderm seperates into 2 layers forming the ____.
inraembryonic coelom
The ___ layer is continuous with the extraembryonic mesoderm surrounding the amnion, while the ____ layer is continuous with the extraembryonic mesoderm surrounding the yolk sac.
somatic or parietal, visceral or splanchnich
The somatopleura or embryonic body wall is formed from the ____ and ____.
somatic mesoderm, overlying ectoderm
The embryonic gut wall or splanchnopleura is formed from the ____ and _____.
splanchnic mesoderm, endoderm
The intraembryonic coelom divides into the ____, _____, and ____.
pleural, pericardial, peritoneal cavities
Blood vessels form only in ___ tissue.
mesoderm
Connective tissue, cartilage and bone except in the head and neck arise from _____.
mesoderm
Striated, smooth and cardiac muscle arise from the ____.
mesoderm
Blood cells, wall of the heart, blood and lymph vessels arise from the ____.
mesoderm
Kidney arise from the _____.
intermediate mesoderm
Gonads and their ducts arise from the ____.
mesoderm
Cortex of the adrenal glands arise from the ____.
mesoderm
The spleen arises from the ____.
mesoderm
The septum transversium gives rise to part of the ____.
diaphragm ( mesodermal)
A portion of the yolk sac is enclosed within the embryo forming the ____.
foregut
The allantosis, an outpouching of the ____ is folded under the embryo forming the ____.
endoderm, forgut
The epithelial lining of the primitive gut and intraembryonic portions of the alantosis and yolk sac arise from the ____.
endoderm
The epithelial lining of the respiratory tract arise from the ____.
endoderm
The parenchyma of the tonsils and thyroid gland arise from the ____.
endoderm
The parathyroid gland arises from the ___.
endoderm
Thymus, liver and pancreas arise from the ____.
endoderm
The epithelial lining of the urinary bladder arises from the ____.
endoderm
The urethra arises from the ____.
endoderm
The epithelial lining of the tympanic cavity and auditory tube arise from the ___.
endoderm
The epithelium and glands of the gut arise from the ___.
endoderm
___ is vessels arising from blood islands.
Vasculogenesis
___ is new vessels arising from exisiting vessels.
angiogenesis
Blood islands plus FGF2 produce _____.
hemangioblasts
Hemangioblasts with VEGF cause _____.
tube formation