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30 Cards in this Set

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What formes the pericardial cavity?
Lateral plate mesoderm (at the cephalic area of embryo) will split into a somatic layer and splanchnic layer, forming the pericardial cavity
Precardiac mesoderm is preferentially distributed to what layer?
The splanchnic layer, now becoming known as the heart-formmg regions (HFRs).
As lateral folding of the embryo occurs, what happens to the precardiac mesoderm?
The splanchic layer (heart-formmg regions; HFRs) will fuse in the midline to form a continuous sheet of mesoderm.
How is the endocardial tube formed?
Hypertrophied foregut endoderm secretes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which induces the sheet of precardiac mesoderm to form discontinuous vascular channels that are eventually remodeled unto a single endocardial tube (endocardium).
What forms the myocardium?
Mesoderm around the endocardium forms the myocardium, which secretes a layer of extracellular matrix proteins called cardiac jelly.
What forms the epicardium?
Mesoderm migrating into the cardiac region from the coelomic wall near the liver forms the epicardium.
What are the names of the five dilatations that form along the length of the heart tube?
Truncus artenosus, bulbus cordis, primitive ventncle, primitive atrium, and sinus venosus. These five dilatations develop into the adult structures of the heart.
Truncus arteriosus (T) forms what Adult Structure?
Aorta y Pulmonary trunk; formed from what Embryonic Dilatation?
Bulbus cordis (B) forms what Adult Structure?
Smooth part of right ventricle (conus arteriosus) y Smooth part of left ventricle (aortic vestibule); formed from what Embryonic Dilatation?
Primitive ventricle (PV) forms what Adult Structure?
Trabeculated part of right ventricle y Trabeculated part of left ventricle: formed from what Embryonic Dilatation?
Primitive atrium (PA) forms what Adult Structure?
Trabeculated part of right atrium y Trabeculated part of left atrium; formed from what Embryonic Dilatation?
Sinus venosus (SV) forms what Adult Structure?
Smooth part of right atrium (sinus venarum)*; Coronary sinus y Oblique vein of Left atrium; formed from what Embryonic Dilatation?
What is the crista terminalis?
The junction of the trabeculated and smooth parts of the right atrium.
The smooth part of the Left atrium is formed by what?
Incorporation of parts of the pulmonary veins into the atrial wall.
Describe the formation of the Aorticopulmonary Septum.
Neural crest celis migrate from the hindbrain region through pharyngeal arches 3, 4, and 6 and invade both the truncal and bulbar ridges. These ridges grow and twist around one another in a spiral fashion and eventually fuse to form the AP septum.
The AP septum divides the truncus arteriosus and bulbus cordis into what structures?
The aorta and the pulmonary trunk.
What is Persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA)?
Caused by abnormal neural crest ceil migration such that there is only partial development of the AP septum; A condition in which one large vessel leaves the heart and receives blood from both the right and left ventricles; Usually accompanied by a membranous ventricular septal defect (VSD) and is associated clinically with marked cyanosis (R—*L shunting of blood).
What is D-Transposition of the great arteries (complete)?
Caused by abnormal neural crest cell migration; nonspiral development of the AP septum; aorta arises abnormally from the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk arises abnormally from the left ventricle; systemic and pulmonary circulations are completely separated from one another; incompatible with life unless an accompanying shunt exists, such as a VSD, patent foramen ovale, or patent ductus arteriosus; associated clinically with marked cyanosis (R—*L shunting of blood).
What is L-Transposition of the great vessels (corrected)?
Aorta and pulmonary trunk are transposed and the ventricles “inverted” such that the anatomical right ventricle lies on the left side and the anatomical left ventricle on the right. These two major deviations offset one another, such that the pattern of blood flow is normal.
What is Tetralogy of Fallot?
Caused by abnormal neural crest celi migration such that there is skewed development of the AP septum; Results in a condition in which the pulmonary trunk obtains a small diameter while the aorta obtains a large diameter; Characterized by four classic malformations: pulmonary stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, ovemding aorta, and ventricular septal defect (VSD); Mnemonic PROVE. TF is associated clinically with marked cyanosis (R—L shunting of blood), the clinical consequences of which depend primarily on the severity of the pulmonary stenosis.
What are the 4 classic malformations of Tetralogy of Fallot and what is the mnemonic?
Pulmonary stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, ovemding aorta, and ventricular septal defect (VSD); Mnemonic PROVE
What is the foramen ovale?
During embryonic life, the opening between the upper and lower limbs of the septum secundum.
What is the function of the foramen ovale?
During embryonic life, blood is shunted from the right atrium to the left atrium via the foramen ovale.
How and when is the foramen ovale closed?
Immediately after birth, functional closure of the foramen ovale is facilitated both by a decrease in right atrial pressure from occlusion of the placental circulation and by an increase in left atrial pressure due to increased pulmonary venous return.
Describe the formation of the Atrial Septum
The crescent-shaped septum primum forms in the roof of the primitive atrium and grows toward the atrioventricular (AV) cushions in the AV canal; The foramen primum forms between the free edge of the septum primum and the AV cushions; it is closed when the septum primum fuses with the AV cushions; The foramen secundum forms in the center of the septum primum; The crescent-shaped septum secundum forms to the right of the septum primum.
When do the the septum primum and septum secundum fuse?
Later in life, the septum primum and septum secundum anatomically fuse to complete the formation of the atrial septum.
Atrial septal defects (ASDs) are noted on auscultation with ……. ?
a loud S1 and a wide, fixed, split S2
What direction of shunting of blood are charteristic of Atrial septal defects (ASDs)?
L—R shunting of blood.
Foramen secundum defect is caused by what and what is the result?
Excessive resorption of septum primum, septum secundum, or both; results in a condition in which there is an opening between the right and left atria. Some defects can be tolerated for a long time, with clinical syrnptoms manifesting as late as age 30.
It is the most common clinically significant Atrial septal defects (ASD).
Foramen secundum defect