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70 Cards in this Set

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the idea that at scheduling breaks, when one program comes to an end and another begins, programmers view the audience as flowing from one program to the next in any of three possible directions
audience flow
regarding audience flow, what are the three directions that audience members can go?
(1.) FLOW THROUGH to the next program; (2.) FLOW IN from rival channels or home video; (3.) FLOW AWAY to competing channels or activities
_____ considerations have traditionally dominated the strategies of the commercial networks
audience flow
involves scheduling programs with differing appeals against each other
counterprogramming
the idea that people tend to leave the channel selector alone unless stimulated into action by some forceful reason for change
tuning inertia
hunting up and down the channels until one’s attention is captured
grazing
changing back and forth between two channels
flipping
changing the channel or stopping a taping to avoid a commercial interruption
zapping
fast-forwarding a recording to avoid commercials or to reach a more interesting point
zipping
The overall strategic lesson taught by the freedom-of-choice factor is that
programs must always please, entertain, and be easily understood
scheduling different types of programs to match parts of the day
dayparting
when programmers strive to make their programming compatible with the day’s round of what people do
dayparts/dayparting
set the boundaries for the programming strategies that capture the time, money, and effort of broadcasting producers and executives
dayparts
6 - 9 AM
early morning
9 AM - 12 PM
morning
12 - 4 PM
afternoon
4 - 7 PM
early fringe
7 - 8 PM
prime access
8 - 11 PM
prime time
11 - 11:35 PM
late fringe
11:35 PM - 2 AM
late night
2 - 6 AM
overnight
4 - 7 PM
early fringe
7 - 8 PM
prime access
the primary goal in programming advertiser-supported media is
to maximize the size of an audience targeted by advertisers
involves scheduling programs for strict predictability, which establishes tuning habits that eventually become automatic
habit formation
scheduling shows Monday through Friday at the same time each day
stripping
new technologies like DVRs (ARE/ARE NOT) likely to eliminate the average viewer's need to form patterns of behavior
are NOT (may actually enhance habit formation because they make it easier to catch all episodes of a show, thus strengthening a habit)
the first year in which more viewers tuned in to cable
1999
currently, broadcast networks claim only a _____% share of the audience compared to cable's _____%
30; 60
What are the three basic program sources for television and radio?
(1.) network, (2.) syndicated, and (3.) local
What is the key difference between programming and other products corporations make for the public?
ease of delivery
In addition to ease of delivery, broadcast programming is also unique because _____
there is no apparent direct cost to the consumers for the most popular shows
programmers work only indirectly for the _____; their primary customer is the _____
audience; advertiser
the four major parts of the programming process
(1.) selection, (2.) scheduling, (3.) promotion, (4.) evaluation (SSPE)
selection contributes _____% to ratings
40%
scheduling contributes _____% to ratings
50%
promotion contributes _____% to ratings
10%
the decision-making processes of selection, scheduling, and promotion, modified by feedback from evaluation, ultimately determine the _____ and _____ of the audience
size; composition
factors affecting this include audience habits, cost, compatibility, talent availability, differentiation, trendiness, and novelty.
selection
factors affecting this include hammocking, blocking, compatibility, ranking, competition, and inherited viewing
scheduling
the amount of inherited viewing between adjacent programs has been consistently shown to hover around _____% in prime time
50%
factors affecting this include clutter, location, frequency, construction, distance, and familiarity
promotion
refers to the ongoing interpretation of quantitative information and qualitative judgments that results in revisions of show selections, changes in the scheduling of already selected programs, and modifications in their promotion
evaluation
the three sources syndicated programming draws upon
(1.) off-network series, (2.) first-run syndicated series and specials, (3.) feature films
of all the syndicated program types, _____ is the most in demand
the feature film
refers to the release sequence by which feature films reach their various markets
window
a sample or prototype production of a series under construction
pilot
afford programmers an opportunity to preview audience reaction to a property
pilot
Each of the Big Three (ABC, CBS, NBC) orders between _____ pilots for a new season
30 to 45
half-hour pilots cost from _____ to _____ million, with one-hour dramas costing _____
$1.5 to $3 million; twice that amount
when a network decides to film or tape a pilot and gives money to the producer
advance
of the approximately 130 pilots produced annually, many are formatted as _____
made-for-TV-movies
the previous average lifespan for a series was more than 20 years, but the current standard for an outstanding run/successful series is _____ years
5
paying more to produce a series than the network pays in license fees
deficit financing
limited series generally last how many episodes?
between four and six episodes
This off-and-on method of scheduling allows the networks to test a new program under the best possible conditions while preserving original episodes of the most popular series for the May sweeps
limited series
the majority of new series are aired first in
limited-run experiments
decisions of which programs already on the air will continue (renewal) or be pulled (cancelled) is perhaps the easiest decision network programmers have because such decisions are based solely on the network's
profit margin
involves subtracting the cost per episode from advertising revenues
profit margin
true or false? normally, revenue is directly related to ratings
true
currently, the Big Four's numbers have plummeted to a minimum weekday rating of _____ and a share of _____
5; 9
_____ is the source of the power of reality programs
profitiability
One axiom of programming (that is true) is that loyal viewers who are forced to change their viewing habits
rarely change back
when a network determines which segment of the available audience it will go after, mindful of its competitors’ programming and influenced to some degree by advertiser support for its programming
targeting
The network programmer's task is to put together a schedule of programs that will, at the lowest possible cost, do what four big things?
(1.) ATTRACT the most desirable demographic groups, (2.) MAXIMIZE audience flow through, (3.) BUILD viewer loyalty, (4.) CAPTURE the largest possible audience
A big difference between the major dayparts is that audiences during non-prime-time dayparts are more
homogenous (similar in demographic composition) than prime-time audience
audience during non-prime-time dayparts are (MORE/LESS) homogenous than prime-time audience
more
when selecting the shows for a particular daypart, the networks generally give primary consideration to these three elements:
(1.) DEMOGRAPHICS of available audience, (2.) competitive COUNTERPROGRAMMING opportunities, (3.) ECONOMIC viability
for these three reasons, daytime programming is in much closer touch with its advertising message than prime time
(1.) daytime programs CONTAIN MORE COMMERCIALS, (2.) TRADITION OF SENSITIVITY since programs were once sponsored by advertisers, and (3.) General Foods and P&G dominate the advertising time so networks CANNOT AFFORD TO OFFEND THEM