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220 Cards in this Set

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When you write for a mass medium, you are writing for a _____. The nature of that audience must constantly be in the forefront of your mind and be the key to what you create.
mass audience
When writing for a mass medium, you are writing for a _____ but at the same time you are writing for _____, for a small number of people who have a lot in common, and for a large number of people who have little in common.
mass audience; an individual
Why is reaching an audience via television or the radio especially difficult?
Because it is not a "captive" audience; unlike the theatre or movie audience, the television or radio audience can press a button to move to something else if it doesn't like what it sees or hears.
Although some television viewers carefully select shows, most viewers tune in to particular _____ and to specified continuing series, including local and network newscasts, by force of habit.
formats
What does the wide variety of media mean for the writer?
You must capture the attention of the audience as soon as possible and hold it.
Because radio is localized and fractionalized, the audience for a given radio station is likely to be much more _____.
homogeneous
Because _____ rather than artistic or social considerations control programming decisions and content, the producers and advertisers try to reach and hold as large a segment of the viewing or listening population as possible.
financial
In television, the easiest and most effective way of reaching and holding as large a segment of the viewing population as possible is to find the _____, abbreviated _____.
lowest common denominator; LCD
programs oriented toward specialized audiences, reflecting the growing number of program and distribution sources such as multi network and multichannel cable systems
narrowcasting
Despite increasing _____ programming -- programs oriented toward specialized audiences, reflecting the growing number of program and distribution sources such as multi network and multichannel cable systems -- the primary aim of television producers too often still seems to be to present what kind of material?
narrowcasting; material that will not offend anyone
True or false? Controversy developed more quickly on television than it did on radio.
false (controversy developed more slowly on television than it did on radio)
Although _____ material is banned from the airways by law, _____ and profane material is permissible under certain circumstances.
obscene; indecent
Why are radio audiences not as diverse as television audiences?
When network radio disappeared in the 1950s as television took over, to survive radio became fragmented into local audiences and individual stations developed formats that appealed to specifically targeted groups of listeners.
The makeup of the potential audience for a given program or station is called _____.
demographics
The principal _____ are age, gender, and the given market's locale.
demographics
When the audience's beliefs, attitudes, and behavior are included -- such as political affiliation, religion, where the viewer or listener shops, and what brands he or she buys -- it is called _____.
psychographics
The demographics of radio audiences are even more _____ than those of television audiences.
precise
True or false? Cable audiences are fairly easily targeted.
true (because most cable channels are narrow in content, with the given channel's viewers interested in that kind of programming)
_____ writing dominates most television series.
formula
Several decades ago, after a study of competition and responsibility in network television broadcasting, the _____ stated, "By and large, episodes of television series are produced on the basis of '_____' -- approved in advance by the network corporation and often its mass advertisers -- which 'set' the characters, 'freeze' theme and action, and limited subject matter to 'tested' commercial patterns."
Federal Communications Commission (FCC); formulas
Although the formats themselves have remained relatively unchanged, the _____ the writer can use within any given format expand with each new technology.
techniques
Viewers may regard cable and satellite television as different from the broadcast television service, but the difference is principally in the means of _____.
transmission
True or false? Basic writing technique is likely to change appreciably as a result of all of the new technologies that are occurring in broadcasting.
false (basic writing technique is NOT likely to change appreciably)
Basic writing technique is not likely to change appreciably. _____ adaptations do occur.
format
Whether the show is being recorded on film or tape, using a film script or a one- or two-column television script, the basic camera movements and the terminology are essentially the same. The principal difference is in the style of shooting: _____, _____ takes for film, _____ and sometimes _____ action sequences for video.
short; individual; longer; continuous
More and more filmed shows tend toward _____, to facilitate instant editing not possible when one has to wait for the processing of the day's film shoot.
videotape
What are the four major areas of audience attention that can be changed via the camera?
(1.) the distance between the audience and the subject, (2.) the amount of the subject the audience sees, (3.) the audience position in relation to the subject, (4.) the angle at which the viewer sees the subject
The camera is mounted on a stand the permits smooth forward or backward movement. This movement to or away from the subject permits a change of orientation to the subject while retaining a continuity of action.
dolly-in and dolly-out
Used to accomplish more easily the same purpose as the dolly from mid- and long-distances; can narrow the angle of view and compress depth, making people or objects appear closer.
zoom-in and zoom-out
Some writers and directors believe that psychologically the _____ is more effective, moving the audience closer to or further from the subject, whereas the _____ gives the feeling of moving the subject closer to or further from the audience.
dolly; zoom
This means pointing the camera up or down, thus changing the view from the same position to a higher or lower part of the subject.
tilt up and tilt down
also called pan up and pan down
tilt up and tilt down
The camera moves right or left on its axis. This movement is used to follow a character or a particular action, or to direct the audience's attention to a particular subject.
pan right and pan left
also called the travel shot or the truck shot
follow right and follow left
The camera is set at a right angle to the subject and either follows alongside a moving subject or, if the subject is stationary, such as an advertising display, follows down the line of the subject. The audience, through the camera lens pointed sharply to the right or left, sees the items in the display.
follow right and follow left
A crane, usually attached to a moving dolly, enables the camera to _____ up or down from its basic position, at various angles -- usually high up -- to the subject.
boom shot; boom
also known as a crane shot
boom shot
when the video director inserts camera positions in a script it is known as a _____
shooting script
Though the _____ hasn't solved all camera movement and shot problems, it has given the writer and director more options.
zoom
Among the directions most frequently specified by the writer are the shots designating what?
how much of the subject is to be seen
Ordinary, shot designations are the director's choice, but in what instance would the writer include them?
to capture a specific subject for the logical continuity of the script or for the proper psychological effect of the moment upon the audience
When does the writer have the prerogative of adding specific shots into a script?
when the specific shot required might not be obvious to the director within the context of the scene
A _____ of a human subject usually consists of just the face, but can include some of the upper body.
close-up (CU)
The letters _____ and ____ (_____) usually mean the face alone.
XCU; ECU; extreme close-up
In the _____ (_____), the camera picks up a good part of the individual, group, or object, usually filling the screen (but not in its entirety), without showing too much of the physical environment.
medium shot (MS)
also known as the establishing shot or wide shot (WS)
long shot (LS)
used primarily to establish the entire setting or as much of it is necessary to orient the audience properly
long shot (LS)
In the _____ (_____), the subject is put on the screen in its entirety, as in when the audience sees a character from head to toe.
full shot (FS)
also known as FF for "full figure shot"
full shot (FS)
if two people in conversation are to be the focal point of the shot, the term _____ is appropriate.
two-shot (2S)
if two people are to fill the screen, _____ is appropriate.
tight 2S
brings the picture in from a black (or blank) screen
fade-in
takes the picture out until a black level is reached
fade-out
used primarily to indicate a passage of time, and in this function serves much like a curtain on the stage; can also be used to indicate a change of place
fade
True or false? The writer usually indicates the fade-in and fade-out on the script.
true
while one picture is being reduced in intensity, the other picture is being raised, one picture smoothly going into the next -- replacing or being replaced by the other
dissolve
used primarily to indicate a change of place, but sometimes to indicate a change of time
dissolve
when two similar or identical subjects are placed one over the other, with one fading in and the other fading out, showing a metamorphosis taking place
matched dissolve
True or false? In a dissolve, the screen goes to black.
false (at no point in the dissolve does the screen go to black)
True or false? The writer usually indicates the dissolve in the script.
true
the editing technique most commonly used
cut
switching instantaneously from one picture to another
cut
True or false? The television writer usually indicates the cut in the script.
false (the television writer usually leaves the designation of cuts to the director)
True or false? In a film script, especially when the transition from one sequence to the next is a sharp, instantaneous effect rather than a dissolve or fade, the writer may indicate "cut to ..."
true
the placing of one image over another
super
sometimes used in stream-of-conscious sequences when the memory being recalled is pictured on the screen along with the person doing the recalling
super
To obtain necessary contrast in a _____, one picture must have higher light intensity than the other.
superimposition
sometimes used for dramatic effects, such as placing a commercial name or product over a picture
superimposition
True or false? The writer usually indicates the superimposition.
true
Although the principles of the super continue to be used, the mechanical control room superimposition has been replaced, in almost all studios, by the more effective _____ or _____.
key; matte
a two-source special effect where a foreground image is cut into a background image and filled back in with itself
key
a technique similar to a key that can add color to the foreground image
matte
electronically cut letters into background pictures
character generators (chyrons or vidifonts)
an electronic effect that cuts a given color out of a picture and replaces it with another visual
chroma key
newscasts use this technique; the blue background behind the newscaster is replaced with a slide or taped sequence
chroma key
one picture taking another picture off the screen in the matter of a window shade being pulled over a window; can be from any direction -- horizontal, vertical, or diagonal
wipe
often designate a change of place or time
wipe
the picture on the air is divided, with the shots from two or more cameras or other sources occupying adjoining places on the screen
split screen
True or false? In the technical -- not the artistic -- sense, video and audio use sound in essentially the same ways, except for some differences.
true
The term _____ (_____) is used in the script for the character or sound heard but not seen.
off-camera (OC)
In television the _____ (_____) can be a narrator, announcer, or the prerecorded thoughts of the character
voice-over (VO)
In television, the sound or music does not _____ visual action but, rather, _____ or heightens it.
replace; complements
_____, _____, and _____ are the primary technical and production elements the radio writer should be aware of and should be able to indicate in the script.
microphone use; sound effects; music
What are the three primary technical and production elements the radio writer should be aware of and should be able to indicate in the script?
(1.) microphone use, (2.) sound effects, (3.) music
The basic element of radio broadcasting is the _____.
microphone
With regard to microphones, what is the writer's one important responsibility in the area?
to indicate the performer's relationship to the microphone because this physical relationship determines the listener's orientation
What are the five basic microphone positions?
(1.) on mic, (2.) off mic, (3.) fading on, (4.) fading off, (5.) behind obstructions
The five basic microphone positions are _____, _____, _____, _____, and _____.
on mic; off mic; fading on; fading off; behind obstructions
When writing radio the writer should indicate every position except _____, which is taken for granted when no position is designated next to the line of dialogue.
on mic
The performer speaks from a position right at the microphone. The listener is oriented to the imaginary setting in the same physical spot as the performer.
on mic
The performer is some distance away from the microphone. This conveys to the audience the impression that the sound or voice is at a proportionate distance away from the physical orientation point of the listener, which is usually the center of the scene.
off mic
The performer slowly moves toward the microphone. To the listener, the performer is approaching the physical center of the action.
fading on
The performer moves away from the microphone while speaking, thus moving away from the central orientation point.
fading off
The performer sounds as if there were a barrier between him or her and the focal point of the audience's orientation.
behind obstructions
The writer indicates that the performer is behind a door, outside a window, or perhaps under the bandstand.
behind obstructions
There are two major categories of sound effects: _____ and _____.
recorded; manual
For split-second incorporation of sound into the program's action, _____ or _____ effects sometimes are more effective.
manual; live
_____ effects are those emanating from their actual sources, such as the sound of walking where a microphone is held near the feet of a sound effects person.
natural
True or false? Sound effects should be used a lot.
false (sound effect should be used only when necessary, and then only in relation to the principles that determine the listener's orientation)
What are seven purposes sound effects can be used for?
(1.) establish locale or setting, (2.) direct audience attention and emotion, (3.) establish time, (4.) establish mood, (5.) signify entrances and exits, (6.) serve as transition, and (7.) create nonrealistic effects
Sound effects can be used for many purposes, such as establishing _____ or _____, directing audience _____ and _____, establishing _____, establishing _____, signifying _____ and _____, serving as a _____, and creating _____ effects.
locale; setting; attention; emotion; time; mood; entrances; exits; transition; nonrealistic
True or false? Emphasis on a distinctive sound can specifically orient the audience.
true
dissolving from one sound to another
cross-fade
a blending of a number of sounds
montage
Sometimes a _____, which is a belong of a number of sounds, can be especially effective when no single sound fits the specific situation.
montage
recorded (on record, tape, cartridge, and compact disc) music, played by disc jockeys, dominates radio programming
content
the generic term used to describe music used under or as backup of an announcer's sound tracks
bedding (bed)
pegs a specific event or particular personality; the action or performer is identifiable as soon as it is heard
theme
can be used for the opening, closing and commercial break transitions in a show
theme
the most commonly used device to create transitions in music
bridge
The most commonly used device to create transitions in music. Music lasting only a few notes or a few bars can be used to indicate the breaks between segments of the program. Can also be used to distinguish the commercial inserts from the rest of the programs.
bridge
In a dramatic sequence (in a commercial, for example), the music _____ frequently indicates a change of place or a passage of time.
bridge
When a bridge is very short, only a second or two, it is called a _____.
stab
the idea that some effects cannot be presented effectively except through music
sound effect
Music can heighten the content and mood of a sequence. The music must serve as a subtle aid, however; it must not be obvious or, sometimes, even evident.
background or mood
the smooth transition from one sound into the next
segue
particularly applies to transitions between musical numbers, when one number is faded out as the next number is faded in
segue
the dissolving from one sound into another
cross-fade
The dissolving from one sound into another, _____ sometimes is used interchangeably with _____, which is simply the immediate following of one sound by another.
cross-fade; segue
refers to two or more different sounds combined and going out over the air simultaneously; can include combinations of dialogue and music, dialogue and sound effects, sound effects and music, or all three
blending
the sudden cutting off of one sound and the immediate intrusion of another, is a jarring break, sometimes used for a special effect
cutting (or switching)
can simply designate a sharp change from one microphone to another or to a different sound source
cutting (or switching)
bringing up the volume or turning it down is a relatively simply operation that is frequently used to _____ the music under dialogue, as well as to bring music into and out of the program
fade (fade-in and fade-out)
The _____ is the center of operations, where all of the sound -- talk, music, effects -- are coordinated.
control room
a music base
bed
sound effects
SFX
cartridge, containing the prerecorded material to be played
cart
audio tape recorder, serving the same function as the cart, but less often
ATR
reel type
RT
A key addition of the Internet to the media mix is its ability to be _____ -- between the presenter (writer) and the receptor (the audience).
interactive
frequently associated with creating material -- writing -- for the Internet; refers to the ability to convey our thoughts closer to the way we think - many ideas, many viewpoints rushing through our minds almost simultaneously, rather than in the logical linear fashion that we put them down on paper after we have properly organized them to make them understandable through the linear mode of communication
hypertext
_____ constitute the principal financial base for the United States broadcasting system.
commercials
can be used to designate any short nonentertainment, nonnews presentation on the air, including a commercial
announcement
usually announcement refers to the noncommercial announcement, with the word _____ most often used to mean a commercial
spot
_____ have the same structure, form, and lengths as commercials.
announcements
Announcements are usually divided into two categories, _____ and _____.
promos; PSAs
designed to sell a product or service for a profit-making advertiser
commercial
most often advertises the station itself: an upcoming program or series, a station personality, a contest for listeners -- anything that induces the public to tune in or otherwise support the station
promo
similar to the commercial except that it does not sell a product or service for money, but is made on behalf of a nonprofit organization or activity and can include advancing an idea or policy
public service announcement (PSA)
principally, the _____ seeks support for activities of the non-profit group
PSA
In the area of _____, more than any other, you will be faced with hard ethical choices.
commercial advertising
Commercials are usually _____ or _____ seconds long.
30; 60
With the increasing cost of commercial time and production, the "_____" -- two 15-second commercials in a 30-second space -- became popular, as did later the 15-second stand-alone announcement.
split-30
not paid for but usually follow the same time lengths as commercials of 30 and 60 seconds
public service announcements (PSAs)
they take second place to paid commercials and are aired only when the station hasn't sold the complete available commercial time segments
public service announcements (PSAs)
Why are PSAs often sent to a station in several versions?
for greater possibility of use as PSAs are aired only when the station hasn't sold the complete available commercial time segments
consist of the call letters or logo, city, and sometimes an identifying or promotional phrase about a station
station IDs (identifications)
The station's _____, as required by the Federal Communications Commission, must contain the station's call letters and the originating city and, optionally, the name of a larger city that is the principal area of service.
identification
True or false? PSAs are frequently given as part of the ID.
true
If the commercial or PSA is to seem sincere, the performer must have material that is _____ and _____ within the context of the situation, so that the audience really believes what it sees and hears.
conversational; informal
True or false? There are essential differences between writing the commercial and the PSA.
false (the audience analysis, familiarization with the product or service, appeals to the viewers' or listeners' needs and wants, effective organization, and format types are the same)
The principal distinction to remember is that the commercial sells a _____ or _____ for money whereas the PSA usually sells _____ or _____.
service; product; idea; action
You should not try to make your commercial interesting but instead strive to make your _____ interesting.
products
Audience analysis is called _____, which may include such information as age, gender, economic level, political orientation, occupation, educational level, ethnic background, geographical concentration, and product knowledge.
demographics
_____, even more detailed audience analysis, includes such elements as lifestyles, primary interests, and attitudes and beliefs.
psychographics
Although writers attempt to appeal to the largest number of people expected to watch the program and the commercial, they should be careful not to what?
Not to spread the message too thin
Television audiences tuned to network programs tend to be _____ demographically.
disunified
Audience analysis is combined with specific _____ and _____ appeals within the commercial to make the most effective impact.
needs; wants
What are three important factors in preparing a commercial or PSA?
(1.) audience analysis, (2.) familiarization with the product, (3.) appeals
Three important factors in preparing a commercial or PSA are _____ analysis, _____ with the product, and _____.
audience; familiarization; appeals
The idea that all viewers and listeners are motivated by essential psychological and intellectual concerns some conscious, most subconscious, and that by playing on these motivations the copywriter can make almost any audience feel or believe almost anything and, in many cases, even persuade the audience to take some action.
appeals
Three basic appeals, applied through the ages and based on Aristotle's three key elements of persuasion -- _____, _____, and _____ -- translate today as _____, _____, and _____ appeals.
ethos; logos; pathos; ethical; logical; emotional
What are the three different kinds of appeals?
(1.) ethical, (2.) logical, (3.) emotional
The three kinds of appeals are _____, _____, and _____.
(1.) ethical, (2.) logical, (3.) emotional
Aristotle called persuasion by someone recognized as a "good person" as _____ appeal.
ethical
when a well-known or well-respected person tells us something, we tend to believe it more than if the same statement had come from a noncelebrity
ethical appeal
the testimonial is based on _____ appeal
ethical
when the persuasion is based on the facts, attempting to convince the potential buyer that the product or service fills a logical, practical need
logical appeal
Many commercials only appear to use logical appeals. Closer examination reveals the appeals are really _____ in content.
emotional
the most used and most effective type of appeal in advertising
emotional
_____ appeals are the most used and most effective type of appeal in advertising.
emotional
one that appeals to the nonlogical, nonintellectual aspects of the viewer's or listener's personality
emotional appeal
an appeal to the audience's basic needs or wants
emotional appeal
appeal to feelings rather than reason
emotional appeal
highly motivating ones include love of family, patriotism, good taste, reputation, religion, and loyalty to a group
emotional appeal
conformity to public opinion is effective used in advertisements for young people's clothes, an example of _____
emotional appeal
the appeal to _____ is perhaps the strongest emotional appeal of all
self-preservation
On television, _____ is paramount.
picture
Generally, you should keep any picture on the screen at least _____ to _____ seconds -- longer depending on its importance to the story; otherwise the audience gets more of a montage, an impression of a series of quick shots without a content focus.
3; 5
If you want to create a mood rather than to give information, then the _____ approach will work.
montage
True or false? You should use visuals for their own sake.
false
Visuals must be an _____ part of the story and in themselves be able to tell the story.
integral
_____ is important for the writer in news.
timing
Until the eighteenth century, with the exception of works by a few playwrights (notably Shakespeare), _____ or _____ was the dominant element in the play.
plot; action
Modern drama has emphasized _____ as most important.
character
What are the three major elements in the play structure?
(1.) character, (2.) plot, and (3.) dialogue
The coordination of the elements of _____, _____, and _____ in a consistent and clear theme toward a common end results in the unity of the piece, a unity of impression.
character; plot; dialogue
The character's actions and events must not be arbitrary. Prepare the audience for these actions and events in a logical and valid manner; this is called _____.
preparation
Give the audience the background of the situation and of the characters; this is the _____.
exposition
True or false? Dialogue is an approximation of real-life speech.
false; it must be heightened and condensed from that of real life
the point at which one of the forces in conflict wins out over the other
climax
The play reaches the climax through a series of _____, each, in itself, a small conflict and climax.
complications
A _____ interprets for the audience what we have written.
medium
Through careful construction and analysis of the _____, the writer can eliminate the bad points and strengthen the good points before the play is written.
scenario
Before writing a detailed scenario, a writer must have a knowledge of the concepts of _____ -- of the basic rules for the play regardless of the medium.
dramaturgy
The play's _____ is based on a complication arising from the individual's or group's relationship to some other force. This is the _____, the point when the two or more forces come into opposition.
plot structure; conflict
The _____ must be presented as soon as possible in the play, for the rest of the play structure follows and is built upon this element.
conflict
Next come a series of _____ or _____, each one creating further difficulty relating to the major conflict, and each building in a rising crescendo so that the entire play moves toward a final crisis or climax.
complications; crises
a final clarification of what happens, as a result of the climax, to the characters or forces involved
resolution
The short time allowed for most television plays requires that the plot contain only the _____ of the characters' experiences -- the heightened extremes of life.
essence
Why does the television play often open with the conflict?
For time limitations and to get and hold the audience's attention
Because of time and space restrictions (the small viewing screen), what kind of conflict is more effective on television?
a conflict between individuals, or between an individual and himself or himself, usually is more effective than are conflicts between groups or any large bodies or forces
True or false? Complications are not important in television plays.
false; although the time length of a single episode limits the number of complications, you must have enough to validate and build the actions of the major characters
The time limitation often forces television to dispense with the _____ entirely unless some doubt remains about some moral principle involved.
resolution
True or false? The radio play follows the same plot structure as the television play.
true
What is a major difference between radio and television plot lines?
The radio writer must concentrate on one or two simple plot lines or conflicts, avoiding too many subplots. This is because the radio audience cannot see and differentiate among characters as easily as in the visual medium.
The usual way to sell a program idea is through the _____.
program pitch
The idea's creator is allowed to present the idea in person to one or more program development executives representing the network or production company. The presentation is called a _____ or sometimes, within the television industry, _____.
program pitch; spitballing
Although you can submit your idea and request a program pitch on a freelance basis, you have a much better chance if you use an _____.
agent
What is the purpose of a program pitch?
to convince the potential producer or distributor that the series going to attract a sufficient audience and make money for the company
True or false? In a program pitch you must present more than just the program content.
true
In a program pitch, you try to present a _____ plan of production, distribution, and potential sales as well as a detailed program description.
bottom-line
True or false? You can copyright an idea.
false
True or false? Ideas for and titles of radio or television programs can be copyrighted.
false
True or false? Copyright will protect the literary or dramatic expression of an author's ideas, but not the ideas themselves.
true
If you want to copyright a script, it has to be more than an outline or synopsis. It should be ready for _____ so that a program could actually be produced from the script.
performance
Unpublished scripts in complete form or a group of related scripts for a series (may/may not) be copyrighted.
may
The Copyright office describes this class as including "published and unpublished works prepared for the purpose of being 'performed' directly before an audience or indirectly 'by means of any device or process'
Class PA: Works of Performing Arts
A copyright fee of _____ protects your work for the life of the author plus _____ years.
$30; 70
A second form of script protection other than copyright is the Script Registration Service of the _____, which is available to non-members as well as members. Members pay $10 for 10 years protection. Nonmembers pay a fee of $22 for a script of 150 pages or less; students pay only $17.
Writer's Guild of America