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42 Cards in this Set

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Leading is defined as:
Guiding and directing on a course, serving as a chanel
Leadership leads to three assumptions, they are:
there is a group. leaderships. a group phenomenon, no leaders wthout followers. always involves interpersonal relationships. Goal directed. a hierarchy.
Effectiveness can be defined through:
group performance, follower satisfaction, successful implementation of large-scale changes in an organization. OUTCOME FOCUSED.
definition of leadership effectiveness contains three elements:
Goal achievement, smooth internal processes, external adaptability.
keys to be an effectiv leader:
knowledge, experience, practice, learning from one's mistakes.
obstacles ot effective leadership:
organizations face considerable uncertainty that creates pressure for quick responses and solutions, organizations are often rigid adn unforgiving, fall back on old ideas and rely on simplistic solutions to coplex problems, culture and acceptable behavior, understanding and applying academic research.
Manager and leaders differ in that they:
manager focuses on present, leader future, managers maintain status quo and stability, leaders spark change, managers implement policies adn procedures, leaders initiate goals and strategies, managers maintain existing structure, leaders create a culture based on shared values, managers remain aloof to maintain objectivity, leaders establish an emotional link with followers, managers use position power, leaders use personal power.
How much does leadership account for financial performance?
7-15% some say, others say they can account for up to 44% of profitability.
culture is defined as:
THe commonly held values within a group of people. It is a set of norms, customs, values, and assumptions that guides the behavior of a particular group of people
The three levels at which culture exists are:
national culture, defined as a set of values and beliefs shared by people within a nation. ethnic and other cultural groups that live within each nation might share a culture. Although these groups share national culture values, they also develop their unique culture. The third level of culture is organizational culture.
Halls High Context and Low Context cultural framework focuses on:
dividing communication into high context and low context.
context in reference to Hall's refers to:
the environment and the information that provide the background for interaction and communication.
Leaders in high context environments:
rely heavily on the context, including non-verbal cues and situational factors.
Leaders in low context environments:
focus on explicit, specific verbal and written messages to understand people and situations.
Hall explains leadership failure successfully with his model because:
• The difference between high and low context can explain many cross cultural communication problems that leaders face when they interact with those of a culture different from their own
Hofstede's 5 cultural dimensions are:
power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, masculinity, and time orientation.
Power distance refers to :
a cultural dimension in hofstede' s model. the extent to which people accept unequal distrubution of power.
uncertainty avoidance refers to:
a cultural dimension in hofstede' s model. the extent to which the culture tolerates ambiguity and uncertainity
individualism refers to :
a cultural dimension in hofstede' s model. the extent to which individuals is the basis for the social system
masculinity refers to:
a cultural dimension in hofstede' s model. the extent to which assertiveness and independence from others is valued
time orientation refers to :
a dimension in Hofstede's cultural model. the extent to which people focus on past, present, or future
Triandis' vertical and horizontal culture model refers to :
a model where culture is divided ito individual and collective on te y axis, and vertical (hierarchy) and horizontal (equality) on the x.
An Individual Vertical society refers to what model and will:
Triandis. Focus on the individual where each person is considered unique and superior to others, often based on accomplishments and performance, or material wealth
An Individual Horizontal society refers to what model and will:
Triandis. Focus in on each individual being unique, individuals are considered equal to others without a strong hierarchy
A Collective and Vertical society refers to waht model and will:
Triandis: have a Strong group feeling with clear rank and status differentiation among group members; members feel obligation to obey authority and sacrifice self for good of the group if needed
A collective horizontal society model refers to and will:
have a culture in which All group members are considered equal; that group has little hierarch and there is strong focus on democratic and egalitarian processes.
Trompenaar's Dimensions of culture overall suggest:
cross-cultural organizational cultures can be classified more efficiently based in two-dimensions: egalitarian-hierarchical and orientation to the person or the task. They yield for general cross cultural organizations:
The general cross-cultural organizations to which Trompenaar refers are:
Incubator, guided missile, family, eiffel tower.
An incubator culture is:
lndividual oriented, leader removes obstacles, focus on individual growth)- , from trompenaar's model
a guided missile culture is:
performance oriented, leader is a guide, focus on achieving common goal)- from trompenaar's model.
a family culture is:
power oriented, leader is caring parent, focus on building relationships - trompenaar's model.
an eiffel tower culture is:
rigid and robust, leader is undisputed legitimate boss, focus on rational performance) - trompenaar
GLOBE is and assumes:
assumes that culture affects what leaders do and how organizations are structured and managed. Based on their findings, the US is among the highest in assertiveness and performance orientation and fall in the middle in all the other dimensions.
Potential causes of poor representation in women's leadership:
• Gender difference in leadership style
• Women have less experience in organizations
• Women are less committed to their work and career
• Women are less educated
• Blatant and subtle discrimination
• Persistent gender stereotypes
• Glass ceiling
• Cultural factors
Three eras of leadership approach are:
the trait era, the behavior era, the contingency era
The trait era suggests:
More than 40 years of study provided little evidence to justify the assertion that leaders are born and that leadership can be explained through either one or a collection of traits. Some traits do emerge as important.
behavior era suggets:
what an effective leader does
• Behaviors can be observed more objectively than traits
• Behaviors can be measured more precisely and more accurately than traits
• As opposed to traits, which are either innate or develop early in life, behaviors can be taught
in the behavior era, the 3 types of leadership thought to exist were:
Democratic, Autocratic, Laisez-Faire
The contingency era was when:
Researchers recommend that situational factors, such as the task and type of work group, be taken into consideration.
Fiedler's suggetsed that:
Leadership effectiveness is a function of the match between the leader’s style and the leadership situation. If the leader’s style matches the situation, the leader will be effective; otherwise the leader will not be effective
4 decision methods are:
autocratic (little or no help from followers), consultation (little help), Group, and total delegation.
Attributional models overview:
Because the interpretation and evaluation of followers’ actions is a central part of leadership activities, the propositions and findings of attributional models offer many helpful applications in understanding and managing these processes.