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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Three states of sound
1. Physical
2. As human perception
3. As an idea (art)
Five Physical Dimensions of Sound
Frequency, Amplitude, Timbre, Space, Time
Overall quality of sound
What are the three component parts of timbre?
Dynamic Envelope, Spectrum, Spectral Envelope
How is dynamic envelope different from the spectrum?
Dyanamic Enevelope: countour of changes in overall dyanamic level

Spectrum: Composite of all of the frequency components of the sound
Fundamental Frequency
the most prominent frequency
How are harmonics and overtones related to the fundamental frequency?
Harmonics/ Subharmonics: whole number multiples of the frequency

Overtones/ Subtones: not proportionately related
individual frequency components
Six elements of a dynamic envelope
Attack (time)
Initial decay (time)
Initial sustain level
Secondary decay (time)
Primary sustain level
Final decay (release time
Two parts of the spectral envelope
Prefix or onset: the initial attack
Body: the remainder of the sound
the number of similar, cyclical displacements in the medium (air) per time unit
the amount of displacement of the medium at any moment, within each cycle of the waveform
the magnitude of displacement in relation to a reference level
Peak amplitude
either maximum positive or negative signal level
total of maximum positive and negative signal level
Root mean square [rms]
average level of the waveform that more closely approximates the level perceived by our ears
Direct Sound
sound that travels directly to the listener
Reflected Sound
sound that will bounce off reflective surfaces before arriving at the listener
Reverberant Sound
the composite of many reflections of the sound arriving at the receptor in close succession
Reverberation Time [RT60]
]: the length of time required for the reflections to reach amplitude of 60 dB lower than that of the original sound source
Early Reflection
reflections that arrive at the receptor about 50 ms of direct sound (early sound field)