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7 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
abstract language
-absract words express qualities apart from particular things or events.
-abstractions represent the qualities, characteristics, and values that the writer is explaining, defending, or attacking
-they enable the writer to make generalizations about his/her data

ex: pursuit of happiness (definition of happiness varies from person to person)
-interpreting or presenting in line with a special interest.
-the arguer has selected facts and words with favorable or unfavorable connotations to create the impression that no alternative view exists or can be defended.
-slanting will suggest a prejudice.

ex: McDollars, McGreedy, McCancer (loaded words, exaggerated language that presents McDonalds in an unfavorable way)
-a catchword or rallying motto distinctly associated with a political party or other group.
-catchphrase used to advertise a product.
-short, undeveloped arguments.

ex: Got Milk? short phrase that is memorable. It advertises the product milk. However, it is an undeveloped argument that does not tell why you need milk.
Toulmin Method
-the claim-support-warrant structure

ex: Claim - Advertisings of cigarettes should be legally banned.

Support - Cigarettes are harmful to our health

Warrant - Advertising of things harmful to our health should be legally banned.
Ad Populum
-an appeal to the prejudices of the people.
-assumption that the claim can be defended without further support if they emphasize a belief or attitude that the audience shares with them.

ex: appeal to patriotism allows arguers to omit evidence that the audience needs for proper evaluation of the claim.
-a pleasant or flattering expression used in place of one that is less agreeable but possibly more accurate.

Ex: words that try to disguise the fact that thousands of people were being dismissed from their jobs (skill-mix adjustment, workforce-imbalance correction, redundancy elimination, downsizing, indefinite idling, and career-change opportunity)
Non Sequitur
-The Latin term non sequitur, which means "it does not follow" is another fallacy of irrelevance.

ex: A book was once rejected as "preposterous," yet half a million copies were sold and for 27 years it remained an outstanding bestseller. The popularity of a book does not bestow scientific respectability. The number of sales, therefore, is irrelevant to proof of the book's theoretical soundness - a non sequitur.