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8 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hasty Generalization
-drawing conclusions from insufficient evidence
-A prejudice (judgement made before the facts are in)
-Applying one incident to all future incidents.

Ex: Superstitions
Post Hoc or Doubtful Cause
-The arguer infers that because one event follows another event, the first event must be the cause of the second.
-Proximity of events or conditions does not guarantee a causal relation.

Ex: Principal decides to ban prayer in the classroom. Vandalism occurs. Parents assume that vandalism increased because prayer was removed.
False Analogy
-assuming without sufficient proof that if objects or processes are similar in some ways, then they are similar in other ways as well.

Ex: Overweight people have a high mortalitiy rate. Black people have a higher mortality rate than white people. Black people are not subjected to treatments to bleach their skin. Skin-bleaching will not eliminate sickle-cell anemia. Therefore, weight loss will not necessarily cure the diseases associated with obesity.
Ad Hominem
-against the man
-refers to an attack on the person rather than on the argument or the issue
-attacking the author of the statement is a strategy of diversion that prevents the reader from giving attention where it is due

Ex: "What can the priest tell us about marriage? He's never been married himself."
False Dilemma
-arguer suggests that only two alternatives exist, although there may be other explanations of or solutions to the problem under discussion.

Ex: "Whats wrong with authority? Is anarchy better?"
Slippery Slope
-arguer predicts that taking a first step will lead inevitably to a second, usually undesirable step, he or she must provide evidence that this will happen. Otherwise, the arguer is guilty of a slippery slope fallacy.

Ex: Legalization of abortion will lead to murder of the old and the physically and mentally handicapped.
Begging the Question
-the writer makes a statement that assumes that the very question being argued has already been proven

Ex: "Not exempting all students who honestly qualify for exemption is an insult." But whether the students are honestly qualified is precisely the question that the exemption test was suppossed to resolve.
Straw Man
-an attack on a view similar to but not the same as the one your opponent holds. It is a familiar diversionary tactic

Ex: Nixon accused of having appropriated money in campaign funds for his personal use. Speech to defend reputation; mentions a dog that was given to him after a listener heard him mention that his two kids wanted one. Nixon says that no matter what the public thinks they are going to keep the dog.