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35 Cards in this Set

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purpose of ETC
allows cell to make ATP from energy in NADH and FADH2
as electrons flow from one carrier down to the next energy gradient, how do they move protons?
OUT of the matrix and into the intermembrane space
where are electron transport carriers located?
embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane
which shuttle uses FADH2 to bring electrons to Cytochrome Q?
Glycerol Phosphate Shuttle
which tisues mainly use the Glycerol Phosphate Shuttle?
Skeletal Muscle and Brian
Which tissues mainly use the Malate-Aspartate Shuttle?
Liver and Heart
How are ADP and ATP transported across the inner membrane? which one goes out or matrix and which one come into matrix?
Exchange....is unidirectional

ADP out....ATP in
How are P moved into the mitochondrial matrix?
with the help of a proton because proton coming back in is really energetically favorable
What is the first reaction in the Glycerol Phosphate Shuttle?
Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate is converted to Glyceraldehyde by CYSTOLIC GLYCEROL-3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE
what happens to electrons in Glycerol Phosphate Shutle once they enter the IM Space?
They are transfered to FAD and then takend to the mitochondrial electron transport chain
Where exactly does FAD (FADH2) take the electrons?
Ubiquinone
What happens in the Malate-Aspartate shuttle?
OAA- Malate, which can get through the inner membrane into the matrix
enzyme of the Malate-Aspartate Shuttle
Cystolic Malate Dehydrogenase
what is OAA converted to to get INTO the matrix? To get OUT OF the matrix?
Malate
Aspartate
how many electrons can NAD accept?
2
how many electrons can FAD accept?
1 or 2
How many electrons can Ubiquinone (Cytochrome Q) accept?
1 or 2
where is Ubiquinone located?
inside the membrane
what does Ubiquinone contain?
Iron Sulfur Center
What is always associated with an Iron Sulfur center
Cysteine residue of a protein
how do Iron Sulfur Centers work?
Iron can be either Fe+3 or Fe+2...can carry electrons because of these two readily available oxidation states
How many electrons can Iron Sulfur Centers transport?
1
what is the electron carrier of Cytochromes?
Fe
Is NADH oxidation by O2 a exergonic or endergonic reaction?
exergonic (- G)
Is the formation of ATP from ADP and P an exergonic or endergonic reaction?
endergonic (+G)
how many protons are pumped out when electrons from NADH go down ETC? FADH2?
10, 6
Where do the electrons from Succinate (FADH2) go?
To Coenzyme Q
how many protons are pumped at Complex I? Ubiquinone? Complex III? Complex IV?
4, 2, 4
what is the final step in ETC?
O2 is reduced to H20
how many protons does it take at Complex IV to convert O2 to H20?
4
most common place for deficiency in ETC chain
Complex III
What does Complex III deficiency lead to?
myopathy- muscle weakness- due to inability to run the energy pathway- lactic Acidosis
what characterizes Complex III deficiency? How detected in patients?
Inability to regenerate Phosphocreatine, low levels in general in the cell.....ATP is necessary to regenerate Pcr and the ETC is not functioning optimally
Three poisons that inhibit Complex IV of the ETC
CO
Cyanide
Nitric Oxide (NO)
At high levels, NO not only inhibits Complex IV, but it also ____
destroys FeS centers of Complex I and Complex II