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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the normal values for Sodium (Na+)
136-145 mEq/L
What are the normal values for Potassium (K+)
3.5-5.2 mEq/L
What are the normal values for Magnesium (Mg++)
1.8-2.6 mEq/dL
What are the normal values for Calcium (Ca++)
8.8-10.4 mg/dL
What are the normal values for Chloride (Cl-)
96-106 mEq/L
What are the normal values of bicarbonate (HCO3-)
22-26 mEq/L
What are the normal values of Hydrogen (H+) and what is it more commonly known as?
pH 7.35-7.45
What happens in a hypertonic solution?
Water moves out of cells to equalize ECF resulting in cellular dehydration (crenation)
What happens in a hypotonic solution?
Water moves from the ECF into the ICF resulting in swelling of cell with potential bursting and death (hemolysis)
Tell me about sodium
It is the most abundant extracellular cation, maintains osmolarity, acid/base balance, and is essential for active and passive cellular transport and depolarization
What is the panic value of hyponatremia?
less than 125 mEq/L
What causes hyponatremia?
thiazide/loop diuretics, AIDS, vomiting diarrhea, adrenal insufficiency (Addison's Disease) inadequate sodium intake
What are the clinical manifestations of hyponatremia?
hemolysis. Headache, muscle weakness, fatigue, postural hypotension, anorexia, N/V, abdominal cramps, confusion, delirium and shock.
What is the panic value of hypernatremia?
greater than 152 mEq/L
What causes hypernatremia?
watery diarrhea, diabetes insipidus, excessive diaphoresis, hyperadrenalism (Cushings)
What are the clinical manifestations on hypernatremia?
thirst, dry, sticky mucous membranes, low urine output, firm rubbery tissue turgor, tachycardia, and death
Tell me about Potassium
it is the most abundant intracellular cation and it is important for metabolism, excitation, depolarization, maintaining acid/base
What is the panic level for hypokalemia?
2.5 mEq/L (This causes ventricular fibrillation)
What causes hypokalemia?
large IV fluids with no K+ replacement, N/V, nasogastric suctioning, fistulas, thiazides, loop diuretics, eating disorders, trauma, burns, and hyperaldosteronism
What are clinical manifestations of hypokalemia?
anorexia, N/V, lethargy, diminished DTR, mental depression, flaccid paralysis, lieus, respiratory muscle weakness to respiratory arrest, postural hypotension, DYSRHYTHMIAS, and CARDIAC ARREST
What is the panic value of hyperkalemia?
greater than 8.0 mEq/L
What are some causes of hyperkalemia?
burns, sepsos, trauma, surgerys, METABOLIC ACIDOSIS, insulin deficiency/hyperglycemia, impaired renal function, potassium sparing diuretics...muscle weakness and paralysis when greater than 8.0
What are the clinical manifestations of hyperkalemia?
NV diarrhea, colic, numbness, paresthesias CARDIAC DYSTHRTHMIAS TO CARDIAC ARREST oliguria to anuria
What else must be needed to absorb calcium?
Vitamin D and parathyroid hormone must be reset for calcium to be absorbed from the GI tract
What is the panic value for hypocalcemia?
less than 4.4 mg/DL
What causes hypocalcemia?
hypoparathryoidism, excess loss through kidneys, renal disease, pancreatitis, multiple blood transfusions, METABOLIC OR RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS
What are the clinical manifestations of hypocalcemia?
tetany, numbness and tingling of the nost, ears, fingertips, and toes. painful muscle spasm, muscle twitching and convulsions, and cardiac dysthrythmias
What is the panic value of hypercalcemia?
greater than 13 mg/dL
What causes hypercalcemia?
excessive intake (antacids) or of vitamin D. excessive release of calcium from bone (hyperparathyroidism, steroid therapy, malignancy with bone metastasis)
What are the clinical manifestations of hypercalcemia?
muscle weakness and fatigue, decreased DTR, cardiac dysrhythmias, decreased gastrointestinal motility, renal calculi, and osteoporosis, bone pain, and Fx