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30 Cards in this Set

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What is normal Serum Sodium level?
135 - 145 mEq/l
What is a low serum sodium level and what causes it?
<135 mEq/l = Hyponatremia
Causes: Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion
What is a hight serum sodium level and what causes it?
>145 mEq/l= Hypernatremia
Causes:
Diabetes Insipidus
What is a normal Serum Potassium?
3.5 - 5 mEq/l
Normal
What is a low Serum Potassium and what causes it?
<3.5 mEq/l = Hypokalemia
Causes:
Diarrhea
What is a high potassium level and what causes it?
>5 mEq/l = Hyperkalemia
Cause:
Burns
What is a normal total serum calcium level?
8.9 - 10.1 mg/dL
Normal
What is a lower than normal total serum calcium level and what causes it?
<8.9 mg/dl = Hypocalcemia
Cause:
Acute Pancreatitis
What is a higher than normal total serum Calcium level and what causes it?
>10.1 mg/dL = Hypercalcemia
Cause:
Hyperparathyroidism
What is a normal ionized calcium level?
4.5 - 5.1 mg/dL
normal
What is a lower than normal ionized calcium level and what causes it?
<4.5 mg/dL = Hypocalcemia
Cause:
Massive Transfusion
What is a higher than normal ionized calcium level and what causes it?
>5.1 mg/dL = Hypercalcemia
Cause:
Acidosis
What is a normal serum Phosphorous level?
2.5 - 4.5 mg/dL
or
1.8 - 2.6 mEq/l
What is a lower than normal serum phosphorous level and what causes it?
<2.5 mg/dL or <1.8 mEq/l
= Hypophosphatemia
Cause:
Diabetic Ketoacidosis
What is a higher than normal serum phosphorous level and what causes it?
>4.5 mg/dL or >2.6 mEq/l
= Hyperphosphatemia
Cause:
Renal Insufficiency
What is a normal serum magnesium level?
1.5 - 2.5 mEq/L
Normal
What is a lower than normal serum magnesium level and what causes it?
<1.6 mEq/L = Hypomagnesemia
Cause:
Malnutrition
What is a higher than normal serum magnesium level and what causes it?
>2.5 mEq/L = Hypermagnesemia
Cause:
Renal Failure
What is a normal serum Chloride level?
96 - 106 mEq/L
Normal
What is a low serum chloride level and what causes it?
<96 mEq/L = Hypochloremia
Cause:
prolonged vomiting
what is a higher than normal serum chloride level and what causes it?
> 106 mEq/L = Hyperchloremia
Cause:
Hypernatremia
Name the Cations?
Na+ , K+ , Ca++ , Mg ++
Name the 8 basic functions of Sodium?
1. Regulates ECF volume
2. Increases cell membrane permeability
3. Maintains blood volume
4. Control H2O distribution between ECF and ICF
5. Provides necessary mechanism for normal nerve impulse conduction
6. Helps maintain neuromuscular irritability
7. Assists in controlling muscle contractility (myocardium)
8. Provides necessary mech. for buffer system as cation that combines with HC03 and phosphate
7.
Name the 6 basic functions of Potassium?
1. Regulates water and electrolyte content of ICF
2. Promotes nerve impulses, especially heart
3. Promotes skeletal muscle function
4. Assists in transforming carbs into energy and restructuring AA into protein
5. Provides necessary mechanism for glycogen deposition in liver
6. Assists in regulation of acid-base balance by cellular exchange with hydrogen
Name the 10 basic functions of Calcium?
1. Nonionized form required for building bones and teeth
2. Acts as essential component for blood coagulation
3. Decreases neuromuscular irritability
4. Strengthens and thickens cell membrane
5. assists in absorption of B12
6. Activates enzymes that in turn activate chemical reactions of body
7. Inhibits cell membrane permeability to sodium
8. Moves into cell with sodium during depolarization, binding troponin
9. Results in actin-and myosin-promoting muscle contraction
10. Promotes normal nerve impulse transmission
What are the 9 basic functions of Magnesium?
1. Affects metabolism of carbs, lipids, and proteins.
2. Activates many enzymes for B12 metabolism and use of potassium, calcium, and protein.
3. Promotes regulation of calcium, phosphate, and potassium
4. Provides essential mech. for nerve transmission, muscle contraction (needs to be present for actin and myosin to use adenosine triphosphate), heart fx
5. Powers sodium-potassium pump
6. Necessary for energy release in adenosine triphosphate - adenosine diphosphate reaction (ADP)
7. Inhibits smooth muscle contraction
8. Influences vasodialation to help cardiovascular system fx
9. Helps sodium and potassium pump
What are the anions?
Bicarbonate(HCO3)- , Chloride- , Phosphate-
===
Proteinate and Organic Acids
Name the 4 basic functions of Chloride-?
1. Regulates extracellular fluid volume
2. Serves as blood buffer-chloride shift
3. Digestion - required for secretion of Hydrochloric Acid
4. Necessary for activation of protease, bile, pancreatic juices
Name the 5 basic functions of Phosphate (HPO4-)?
1. Nonionized form promotes bone and teeth rigidity
2. Promotes acid-base balance (buffer system)
3. Provides necessary mech. for production of adenosine triphosphate for energy transfer
4. Maintains cell wall integrity
5. RBC ingredient, WBC and Platelet
Name the 3 basic functions of H+ / HCO3- ?
1. Ratio of the concentration of each determines acidity or alkalinity of body fluids
2. Acid-Base balance promotes enzyme fx
3. Acid-base balance is necessary for binding of oxygen to hemoglobin