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12 Cards in this Set

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Low Na+
Disorientation, stupor, coma
Low Cl-
Secondary to metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypovolemia, increased aldosterone
Low K+
U waves on EKG, flattened T waves, arrhythmias, paralysis
Low Ca2+
Tetany, neuromuscular irritability
Low Mg2+
Neuromuscular irritability, arrhythmia

Can cause hypokalemia by two mechanisms:

1) Hypomagnesemia inhibits the release of PTH > hypokalemia
(high PTH leads to hyperkalemia; low PTH leads to hypokalemia)

2) Mypomagnesemia can cause oral K+ supplementation to fail because Mg2+ is a cofactor that keeps K+ channels closed in the kidney, preventing K+ from being wasted in the urine.
Low PO4(3-)
Low-mineral ion product > bone loss, osteomalacia
High Na+
Neurologic irritability, delerium, coma
High Cl-
Secondary to non-anion gap acidosis
High K+
Peaked T-waves on EKG, wide QRS, arrhythmias
High Ca2+
Delerium, renal stones, abdominal pain, not necessarily calciuria
High Mg2+
Delirium, decreased DTRs, cardiopulmonary arrest
High PO4(3-)
High-mineral ion product causes renal stones, metastatic calcifications