• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/99

Click to flip

99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the normal concentration of Na+ in the body?
136-145 mEq/L
What is the major ECF cation?
Na+
A shift in _?_ triggers a fluid volume change to restore normal solute and water ratios?
Na+
Which electrolyte helps maintain acid-base balance?
Na+
Which electrolyte influences water distribution with Cl-?
Na+
Which electrolyte is regulated by the kidney through tubular reabsorption?
Na+
Aldosterone increases the reabsorption of which electrolyte by the kidney?
Na+
Natriuretic peptides increase the excretion of what 2 things?
Na+ and water
What is the normal concentration of Cl- in the body?
98-106 mEq/L
Which electrolyte is the main ECF anion?
Cl-
Which electrolyte is transported passively (follows Na+)?
Cl-
What is the normal level of K+ in the body?
3.5 to 5 mEq/L
Which electrolyte is the main ICF cation?
K+
Which electrolyte affects the cell's electrical status?
K+
Which electrolyte is responsible for ICF osmolality?
K+
This electrolyte and insulin are required to move glucose into the ICF and for metabolism of carbs and proteins...
K+
What is the normal concentration of Ca++ in the body?
9 to 10.5 mg/dl
What is the normal concentration of ionized (free) serum Ca++ in the body?
4.5 to 5.6 mg/dl
Which electrolyte is found in equal amounts in ECF and ICF?
Ca++
Which electrolyte is the major cation for bones and teeth (important for their development and maintenance)?
Ca++
Which electrolyte aids in coagulation?
Ca++
Which electrolyte is found in cell membranes and maintains their shape?
Ca++
What is the normal concentration of phosphate (serum phosphorous) in the body?
3-4.5 mg/dl
This electrolyte is generally opposite of Calcium?

High ____ means low Ca++
phosphorous
What is the normal level of Mg++ in the body?
1.3 to 2.1 mEq/L
Where is 40-60% of the body's magnesium stored?
the bone
Where is the rest of the body's magnesium stored?
soft tissues and muscle cells
This electrolyte is one of the major ICF cations:
Mg++
Which electrolyte aids in protein synthesis and is necessary for the formation and function of healthy bones?
Mg++
Levels of Mg++ are regulated by ________?
the kidneys
What pH and CO2 levels would characterize respiratory acidosis?
pH < 7.35

CO2 > 45
What pH and CO2 levels would characterize respiratory alkalosis?
pH > 7.45

CO2 < 35
What pH and HCO3 levels would characterize metabolic acidosis?
pH < 7.35

HCO3 < 22
What pH and HCO3 levels would characterize metabolic alkalosis?
pH > 7.45

HCO3 > 26
Which acid-base disorder may be caused by:

CNS depression from drugs, injury, or disease
Asphyxia (insufficient O2)
Hypoventilation related to a disease
respiratory acidosis
Which acid-base disorder may be caused by:

hyperventilation from anxiety, pain or improper ventilator settings
respiratory stimulation due to drugs, disease, hypoxia, or fever
respiratory alkalosis
Which acid-base disorder may be caused by gram negative bacteremia?
respiratory alkalosis
Which acid-base disorder may be caused by:

bicarbonate depletion from diarrhea
Excess production of organic acids from hepatic disease, endocrine disorders, shock or drug intoxication
Inadequate excretion of acids from renal disease
metabolic acidosis
Which acid-base disorder may be caused by:

Loss of HCl from prolonged vomiting or gastric suctioning
Loss of potassium from increased renal secretion (as in diuretic therapy) or steroids
Excessive alkali ingestion
metabolic alkalosis
hydrostatic pressure
the mechanical force of water pushing against cellular membranes; also, the blood pressure generated in vessels when the heart contracts
osmosis
the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from a region of higher water concentration to one of lower concentration
osmolality
the number of milliosmoles per kilogram of water (concentration of molecules per weight of water)
osmolarity
the number of milliosmoles per liter of solution (the concentration of molecules per volume of solution)
osmotic pressure
the amount of hydrostatic pressure required to oppose the osmotic movement of water
oncotic pressure
the overall osmotic effect of colloids (such as plasma proteins)
tonicity
the effective osmolality of a solution
isotonic solution
has the same osmolality or concentration of particles as ICF or ECF
hypotonic solution
has a lower concentration of particles than ICF or ECF
hypertonic solution
has a higher concentration of particles than ICF or ECF
Which electrolytes are involved in muscle contraction?
Na+
K+
Ca++
Which electrolytes are involved in nerve impulse transmission?
Na+
K+
Ca++
Mg++
Name 3 symptoms of having "hypo" sodium.

<136 mEq/L
sleepiness
weakness
lethargy
N/V or anorexia
behavioral and personality changes
decreased tendon reflexes
headache
seizures
coma
Name 3 symptoms of having "hyper" sodium.

>145 mEq/L
increased thirst
irritability
restlessness
confusion
agitation
seizures
coma
How would you treat "hypo" sodium? (1 way)
fluid restriction
How would you treat "hyper" sodium?
push fluids out of patient
D5W
inspect for edema
Name 3 symptoms of "hypo" chloride.
hypoventilation
tetany (muscular twitching and cramps)
paresthesia of the extremities
restless, confusion, convulsions
Name 3 symptoms of "hyper" chloride.
hyperventilation to blow off excess CO2
hypotension
decreased cardiac output
peripheral vasodilation
headache
lethargy
How would you treat "hypo" chloride?
Increase NaCl in the diet.
Correct GI symptoms.
Seizure precautions.
How would you treat "hyper" chloride?
Correct fluid imbalance by giving IV fluids.
Give sodium bicarbonate and correct pH.
Monitor patient's level of consciousness and respiratory status.
Name 3 symptoms of "hypo" potassium.

<3.5 mEq/L
muscle weakness and cramps
fatigue
decreased tendon reflexes
postural hypotension
constipation
EKG changes and arrhythmias
confusion
Name 3 symptoms of "hyper" potassium.

>5 mEq/L
EKG changes and arrhythmias
Nausea
Diarrhea
Hyperactive bowel sounds
Fatigue
Drowsiness
Irritability, mental confusion
"Hypo" and "hyper" levels of which electrolytes would cause EKG changes and arrythmias?
K+
Ca++
Mg++
How would you treat "hypo" potassium? (1 way)
Replace K+ orally or by IV.
How would you treat "hyper" potassium?
Kayxelate (liquid taken to reduce K+)
Insulin, bicarb, and dextrose fluids
Dialysis
What is the goal when treating "hyper" potassium?
Increase excretion and move the potassium into the cells
Name 3 symptoms of "hypo" calcium.
confusion
convulsions
insomnia
paresthesias around mouth/hands
carpopedal spasm
tetany (muscle spasms)
hyperreflexia
brittle nails, osteoporosis
periodontal disease
diarrhea
Chvosteks sign
Trousseau sign
cardiac arrhythmias
Name 3 symptoms of "hyper" calcium.
N/V
constipation
confusion
weakness
lethargy
polydipsia (excessive thirst)
polyuria
dehydration
decreased deep tendon reflexes
bone pain
cardiac arrhythmias or arrest
How would you treat "hypo" calcium?
Stop giving meds known to lower Ca++.
Administer Ca++.
Treat low Mg++ level.
Treat causes.
Monitor heart monitor.
Vitamin D
How would you treat "hyper" calcium?
Discontinue Ca++ meds.
Treat causes.
Calcitonin
Meds for bone pain, N/V
Laxatives
Heart monitor
Name 3 symptoms of "hypo" phosphorous.
Reduced O2 transport by RBCs (can cause hypoxia and bradycardia)
Dysfunctions in WBCs and platelets
Affects nerve/muscle function
Rickets
Osteomalacia
Name 3 symptoms of "hyper" phosphorous.
**Generally the same as hypocalcemia**
confusion
convulsions
insomnia
paresthesias around mouth/hands
hyperreflexia
brittle nails, osteoporosis
diarrhea
cardiac arrhythmias
Chvosteks and Trousseau signs
How would you treat "hypo" phosphorous?
Treat underlying cause
Can give phosphate salts (but low level is usually not life threatening)
A low level of which electrolyte is generally not life threatening?
phosphorous
How would you treat "hyper" phosphorous?
Correct underlying cause.
Dialysis.
Give Aluminum hydroxide--it binds to phosphate in GI tract and eliminates it.
Name 3 symptoms of "hypo" magnesium.
neuromuscular irritability
tremors
cramping
disorientation
depression
hyperreflexia
swallowling difficulties
Chvostek's and Trousseau signs
Name 3 symptoms of "hyper" magnesium.
Increased perspiration
Muscle weakness
Decreased deep tendon reflexes
Nausea, vomiting
hypotension
cardiac arrythmias
respiratory compromise
How would you treat "Hypo" magnesium?
Give PO or IV Mg++
How would you treat "hyper" magnesium?
Monitor cardiac/respiratory status.
Give IV fluids, diuretics, calcium.
cellular adaptation that decreases the cell substance and results in cell shrinkage

caused by disuse, denervation, decreased endocrine stimulation, decreased nutrition, and ischemia
atrophy
cellular adaptation that increases cell size

commonly seen in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue

triggered by stretch, growth factors, hormones, and vasoactive agents
hypertrophy
an increase in the number of cells of a tissue or organ

occurs in tissues where cells are capable of mitotic division
hyperplasia
enables certain organs, such as the liver, to regenerate after loss of substance
compensatory hyperplasia
breast and uterine enlargement during pregnancy are examples of:
physiologic hyperplasia and hypertrophy
occurs when the endometrium enlarges because of excessive estrogen production
pathologic hyperplasia
deranged cell growth that results in cells that vary in size, shape, and appearance as compared to mature cells

occurs in association with chronic irritation or inflammation in the cervix, oral cavity, gallbladder, and respiratory passages

is potentially reversible once the irritating cause has been removed
dysplasia
a reversible conversion from one adult cell type to another

(ex. cells in the lungs of smokers)
metaplasia
True or false:

Dialysis is used to treat "hyper" levels of K+.
True
True or false:

Dialysis is used to treat "hyper" levels of phosphorous.
true
type of necrosis that occurs mainly in the kidneys, heart, and adrenal glands
coagulative
type of necrosis that is usually a result of hypoxia caused by severe ischemia or chemical injury

(protein denaturation causes coagulation)
coagulative
type of necrosis that commonly results from ischemic injury to neurons and glial cells in the brain

affected tissue becomes soft
(brain cells are digested by their own hydrolases)

can be caused by bacterial infection
liquefactive
a combination of coagulative and liquefactive necroses; usually results from tuberculous pulmonary infection
caseous necrosis
necrotic debris is not digested completely by hydrolases

tissue appears soft and granular and resembles clumped cheese
caseous necrosis
type of necrosis that occurs in the breast, pancreas, and other abdominal structures
fat
type of necrosis in which lipases break down triglycerides, causing free fatty acids to combine with calcium and form soaps

necrotic tissue appears opaque and chalk white
fat
death of tissue; results from hypoxia due to blockage of major arteries (esp. in lower leg)
gangrenous necrosis
usually the result of coagulative necrosis--skin dries, shrinks, wrinkles, and turns brown/black
dry gangrene
develops when neutrophils invade the area, causing liquefactive necrosis

occurs in the internal organs--site becomes cold, swollen, black, and foul-smelling
wet gangrene
special type of gangrene caused by infection of injured tissue by Clostridium bacteria that cause bubbles of toxic gas to form in muscle cells

death occurs b/c of shock
gas gangrene