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42 Cards in this Set

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True or False: Hydrochloric Acid is formed under the anode.
TRUE
True or False: Deplorization occurs under the cathode.
TRUE
True or False: Monophasic waveforms are a form of galvanic or direct current.
TRUE
What parameters are used to treat edema with HVGC?
Frequency-100-120 pps, pulse duration-40-100 microseconds, Amplitude-confortable tingling
True or False: Electrical Stimulation strengthens muscle via the Gate theory.
False: Overload or Specificity
*True or False: A 1:5 ratio should be used when using ES on weak muscles.
TRUE
*True or False: When using AC to strengthen a small muscle, the pulse duration should be set at 150-200 microsec
TRUE
*True or False: When using AC to strengthen a small muscle, the amplitude should be set at 100 milliamps
False: intensity is patient dependent. The amount of intensity should produce a contraction that is > 10% of the MVIC
*True or False: TENS is a form of AC.
TRUE
*True or False: Conventional TENS incorporates the Gate theory.
TRUE
*What pulse durations are used with sensory TENS?
50-80 microseconds
*What frequencies are used with High Rate TENS?
100-150 pps
*True or False: The amplitude for conventional TENS should produce a visible contraction.
False, tingling
*What pulse frequencies are used when using AC for muscle strengthening?
35-80 pps
*Frequencies between 35-50 pps produce what kind of muscle contraction?
Tetanic
*Which structure has a larger capacitance: muscle or nerve?
Muscle
What kind of current must be used to stimulate a denervated muscle?
Low volt direct, you need a device that offers a long pulse duration to charge the capacitance.
*What kind of current is used to deliver Interferential current?
AC
*Interferential current is used to treat what impairment?
Deep pain
*To prevent adaptation of the stimulus when using Conventional TENS, what feature is available?
Modulation
What does denervation cause in a muscle?
Atrophy and fibrosis
What kind of current is used to retard edema by pushing colloids out of the injured area?
Monophasic, HVPC or HVGC
What kind of current is used to deliver drugs transdermally?
Low Volt DC
*What happens to the depth of the current when the electrodes are placed close together?
It is more shallow
*What are the precautions for the use of ES?
Cardiac disease, Malignant tumors, Skin irritation or open wounds, impaired mentation, impaired sensation
*When ES is applied to produce a muscle contraction, one electrode should be placed over what structure?
Motor Point
*When stimulating larger muscle groups, it is more comfortable and effecitve if the electrodes are placed where?
The electrodes should be placed over the proximal and distal ends of the muscle so that the current travels parallel to the direction of the muscle fibers.
*What kinds of nerves are you stimulating when using low rate or acupunture TENS?
Alpha motor and A delta
*Explain why a patient may continue to have pain relief even after a TENS unit using Acupunture setting is turned off.
Endogenous opioids have a half life of 4.5 hours.
*True or False: Theoretically when using Convential TENS the pain should diminish as soon as the unit is turned on.
True, but it might return as soon as the unit is turned off.
*What are the two other names for Convential TENS?
High rate and sensory TENS
*What nerve are you trying to stimulate when using conventional TENS?
A-beta
*True or False, conventional TENS is best used for chronic pain.
False, Acupuncture -like TENS is recommended for chronic pain
*According to the Law of Dubois, what are the 3 parameters that are needed to create an action potential?
Pulse duration, intensity and rate of rise
*True or False: the risk of buring a patient is lower with AC then with DC.
True
If the dosage for iontophresis is 40 maMin and the patient can tolerate 2ma of current, how long would the treatment be?
20 minutes
What polarity does a colloid have when it takes on a water molicule?
Negative
What polarity is used during the proliferation phase of wound healing?
Positive
How far should the dispersive pad be placed from the drug delivery electrode when performing iontophoresis?
A few inches away over a large muscle belly.
True or False: the alkaline reaction is more uncomfortable then the acidic reaction during a DC treatment.
True
What is the recommended current density of the cathode when it is the delivery electrode during iontophoresis?
0.5 mA/cm2

What polarity does the medication dexamethasone have?

Negative