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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Stance Adverbials
Adverbials that express speaker judgments of the proposition expressed by the cluase: It DEFINITELY is a trend. (expresses certainty or doubt, actuality and reality, source of knowledge, limitation)
ex.: certainly, undoubtedly, maybe, in fact, actually, evidently, according to, from our perspective
Circumstancial Adverbials
an adverbial that describes the circumstanes relating to the main clause, by answering such questions as where, when, how, why
ex.: a long way, up there, tomorrow night,
Linking Adverbials
an adverbial that relates a clause to preceding (or following) clauses

ex: however, therefore
Process Adverbial
ly verbs, adverbs of comparison, answer with what or with whom, by what means something is done, item use used for task (with), agent or causer of happening
Contingency Adverbial
answers "why", in order to "to clauses--to explain what we're doing", convey idea that contrasts (although it's been used, ), if clauses, results
Degree Adverbial
a bit, answers how much/many, intensifiers (very much, completely)
Addition Adverbials
too, only, also, as well
Recipient Adverbials
tel to whom an action was directed, for you, to the legislature, for wild mice, for our house
Epistemic Adverbials
certainty and doubt, actuality and reality, source of knowledge, limitation, viewpoint or perspective, imprecision (like, sort of)
Attitude/Style
Fortunately, most surprising, hopefully, honestly, more simply put, if i may say so
Cleft
grammatical structure with information broken into two clauses to provide extra focus to one piece of information.
It-cleft: It was his voice that held me.
Wh-cleft: What I want is something to eat.
Preface
A noun phrase functioning as a dislocated peripheral element, paced before the subject of a clause: This little shop--it's lovely.
Verb inversion
verb before subject
Operator Inversion
subject preceded by operator rather than by main verb or full phrase:
Not before in our history HAVE so many strong influences UNITED to produce so large a disaster.
Fronting
moving a clause element to initial position: THAT I also like.
This I do not understand
Some things you never do.
Why he came this way, I don't know.
Noun Tag
a definite noun phrase shifted to a position after the main clause: Has it got double doors, that shop?
Did they have any, the kids?
Conversion
Cheat (verb) to cheat (noun)
Inflectional Morphology
Expresses grammatical meaning or tense: adding an s, es, ing (come to came), est
Derived nouns
able to ability
perplex to perplexity
( one word derived to another)
Compounding
gunfire
supermarket
Situational reference
That banana is going to get rotten.
Generic reference
Bananas are healthier than donuts.
Anaphoric reference
Do you have bananas? Yeah, they're over there. (reference earlier in convo)
Cataphoric reference
The bananas you bought last week are pretty gross now. (referenced later in convo)
Activity Verb
buy, go take, action!
Communication verbs
speaking and writing activities: tell, shout, write
Mental verbs
mental states: know, remember
Causative verbs
help, let, allow, require
Free combination
makes sense (put down the bag)
Phrasal
turn on
Phrasal plus prepositional
look forward to
Lexical verb
main verbs
Auxiliary verb
verbs associated with tense, modality, (have taken, was seen, may go)
Modal verb
can, should, might
Operators
make sentence negative
How many clauses are there?
count MAIN verbs
Dependent Clauses
The movie THEY SHOWED US was boring.
I'm glad HE DOESN'T HAVE ANOTHER SISTER LIKE HER.
Why don't you get the one YOU LIKE THE MOST.
The plan is TO TALK WITH FRED TOMORROW NIGHT.
Extrapositioning
"It" at the beginning of the sentence