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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Jonathan Swift
big pusher for English academy (fix, ascertain, refine the language)
Why don't we have an English Academy?
Because Queen Anne died, so the funding was gone
Why did people want an English Academy?
Wanted to upgrade English
Who regulates language today?
Editors, Mothers, English teachers, dictionary makers
Where did our current preoccuptation with rightness and wrongness of usage stem from?
era when peopel were writing--morality came from Bishop Loath writes about morally right language, Latin highly regarded
Noah Webster's Dictionary
Differnence of Webster in language?
difference in spelling, dropped re, ou (bred and determin don't cut it)
Why did Noah print the dictionary?
time of a new nation, wanted to purposefully change language, spelling reform never really caught on in America
Boston, Philadelphia, NY, Charleston
r is out in upper class, then r back in
Features of American Northern dialects
Mary, Merry, Marry
Features of American Midlands
merry, mary, marry all pronunced the same
Features of American southern
monthongs become diphthongs, diphthongs become monthongs.
ai to a
backwards ci to o
ae to aea
Indo-Eurpean Languages: GAIA BIATCH!
Germanic, Armenian, Indo-Iranian, Albanian, Balto-slavic, Italic, Anatolian, Tocharian, Celtic, Hellenic
Grimms' Law
voiceless stops become voiceless fricatives, voiced stops become voiceless stops, voiced aspirated stops become voiced stops. (teeth becomes dental)
bh --b
k--h, x
Non Indo-Eurpoean Languages in Europe
Turkish, Basque, Hungarian, Finnish
Non Indo-European Language elsewhere
Asian, Hebrew, Native American
Trace English
Germanic, West Germanic, Low Germanice, English
Sir William Jones
first person to hypothesize that there was an actual Indo-European language, rather than a simple relation, studied sanskrit and Latin
High and Low German
Based on altitude: high = south, low = north
voiceless velar fricative
high front rounded vowel
low front unrounded vowel
different sound, changes meaning
different sound, doesn't change meaning
WHere did the Angles, Jutes, and Saxons come from?
North germany and Denmark in 449, brought Futharc and other Germanic languages
runic writing
"ish" means of the people
When did Christianity come to England and how?
597, Irish missionaries
St. Augustine
comes to Kent, gives church words to the vocabulary (altar, mass, priest, gets rid of futharc because of pagan symbols_
dialects of England
Mercian, Wessex, North Umbrian, Kent
Which dialect of Old English was most prestigious at the time?
Wessex, didn't get conquered because of King Alfred and line
Which dialect of Old English would become English?
What spellings do we get from Old Norse?
th, sk words, are
Norse Invations
Synthetic language
heavily inflected, -ru plural
Analytic language
few inflections
What happened with Norse Invasions
endings become less important, so other words (preopositions) come into language
King Alfred
Anglo-Saxon chronicles, history of everything tha thappened
Northeast of Alfred's line after the war
Treaty of Wedmore
the making of the line
Accents in Old English
Accent on first syllable unless there's a prefix (ge)
Front mutation
i mutation, low and frong back back vowels, diphthongs affected things, everything gets closer to an i, foot to feet
Long marks
long vowels/consonants (say it longer)--DO have a phonemic difference
Four cases
Nominative (subject)
Accusative (direct object)
Genitive (possessive)
Dative (indirect object, object of a preposition)
3 Noun Systems
Gender (masculine, feminie, neuter)
Number (plural, singular)
Case (nominative, genitive, etc.)
Weak masculine
n for plural (brethren, children, oxen)
Strong neuter
plural adds no sound, sheep to sheep
Mutated Plural
mouse to mice (vowel change
you distinction, you and one other person
Verb that kept distinction in Old English
to be
Stong verbs
change the vowel==more strong vowels in OE than PDE
Weak verbs
add suffix of t or d
2nd person singular takes:
All others take:
-est, -eth
Effects of Norman conquest
French spellings, voicing of fricatives becomes phonemic, end vowels become schwas, and drop off, nasals at end drop off, stress of syllables change from trochaic to iambic, clergy replaced with French speakers
Descent of English
William of Normandy takes over, replaces English leaders with French, all members of upperclass speak French, English can't communicate with each other, lose prestige
Ascent of English
loss of Normandy by King JOhn, loss of interest, hostitlity towards French (half-siblings of henry drain treasury), increased communication, rise of pilgrimmages, french nobility marry english women, bilingual children, nannies speak english, black death, 100 years war, middle class merchants speak english, nationalism, London center
Evidence of the ascent of English
French had to belearned overseas and ins chools
Was Anglo French well liked in 1100s?
Was Anglo-French well liked in 1200s?
Standard English during ME?
East Midlands (London) 1300s
English is a mix of:
accentual German and syllabic French
Lengthen vowels in ME
before consonant clusters (mb, nd, and ld)
syllables that end in a vowel (stelan)
Shorten vowels in ME
syllables that end in a consonant
If two ore more unstressed syllables, the vowel of the stressed syllable is shortened: divinity, divine, holiday to holy, nominal, name
Y changes in middle English
Northern/Midlands: becomes I
Southern: becomes u
Kentish: becomes e
Morphology of ME nouns
no ending (singular)
s-lural (strong masculine)
s-genitive( strong masculine)
same as today
French Influence Words: CHAFF GERM ELM
church: chapel, choir
House: table, lamp
Arts, Music, Literature: art, music
Fashion: dress, fashion
Food: dinner, supper
Government: government, tax
Entertainment: chess, checkers
Relations: aunt and uncle
Military: army and navy
Education: college, university
Law: judge, jury
Medicine: medicine, disease
English Germanic or Romantic?
Germanice (most used words)
Romance (dictionary of language)
Minor ways of forming new words in ME
compounding, affixing
6 Minor consonant changes of EME
assibilartion (sh, ch)
loss of preconsonantal r
loss of t and d in consonant clusters
loss of l after a low vowel (talk)
loss of c tail and x as allophones of h
continued loss of distinction between hw and w
EME forming the possessive
pss. ommitted in cases like "pete's sake" "ross's" "ross his)
Changes in relative pronouns in EME
which: thing and person
that:all purpose
who: started to gain popularity
Thee, thou
speaking down, spouse, lover, childr, anger
you, ye
servant to master, plural
Prepositions that have changed in meaning
without: outside of
against: beside of
from: of
Events or movements that influenced English
gutenberg, William Caxton brings press to England, renaissance (rebirth of reading), reformation: bringing bibles to masses, enclosure: urbanization, exploration: new wordsk, American revolution: continued spread of English
Effects of printing
spread of correct spelling, influx of Latin loanwords
authors can make a living
King James had most effect on:
English stylistics, thorn changed into y
EME dispute over vocab
borrowing of words done consciously and by specific people
spellings brought by Dutch printers
gh, thorn changed to y
Latin scholars affect spelling
put in silent b's (indict, doubt_
Samuel Johnson
first non hard-word dictionary, slowed change
Languages most important model
Latin, highly inflectional languages thought to be closer to Latin (pure language), English had few, thought to be corrupt
Inkhorn terms
derogatory: words brought into English to make more prestigious (ingenious, mundane, antique)