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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
correctly calculation for scores
rule
underline main ideas with 90% accuracy
cognitive strategy
correctly classify trees
concepts
given scores and calculation, student will correctly calculate average
application
describe use of blooms taxonomy for instruction
helps teacher recognize whether objectives are written at too low a level
"deep level of processing"
calvin uses knowledge of climate and terrain of each country to explain why crops are grown
this process involves coding obs. into memory
retention
Gagnes learning outcomes
a. verbal information
b. intellectual skills
*discrimination
*concepts (classify and ID)
*rules (state and demonstrate)
c. cognitive strategies (goal in mind)
d. attitudes (making decisions to do something)
e. motor skills (driving car)
Blooms Taxonomy-old
a. knowledge
b. comprehension
c. application
d. analysis
e. synthesis
f. evaluation
Blooms Taxonomy 2001
a. remembering
b. understanding
c. application
d. Anaylsis
e. evaluating
f. creating-synthesis
mager-form objectives
a. intended student behavior
b. condition which behavior occurs
c. criteria for acceptable performance
Example of mager for objective
given an article from local news paper, student will mark each statement with F for fact and O for opinion with 75% of statement correctly marked.
sensory memory
very large amounts of information
lasts 1-3 seconds
working memory
temporary storage
lasts about 15-20 seconds
long term memory
unlimited information
lasts forever
types of knowledge in LTM
a. declarative (statement0
b. Procedural (perform/demonstrate)
c. metacognitive (critical thinking)
levels of processing
a. info is processed along continum
b. processing occurs in wking memory
*deeper the processing, more elaborate connections and better we remember
schemes
-patterns/guide representing an event, concept or skill
-made up of propositions
*can be deemed as true and false
schema activators
-graphic organizers
-pictorial organizers
-verbal organizers
-analogies
-metaphors
-similes
rote memorization
-isolated facts
*Mnemonics
*shallow study skills
*distributed studying
Meaningful learning
-schema activation strategies
*emphasizes organization/structure
-teach effective study skills
-teacher questions
-advanced organizers
expository teaching
-structured/rule based
-uses reinforcer
a. advanced organizer
b. examples/nonexamples
c. relate back to organizer
discovery teaching
-student exploring based
-interactive learning
-present objective
-hypothesis
-+/- examples
anderson's ACT* Theory
-cognitive stage
*declarative representation
*learning tends to be slow due to "read"
*mechanical
-associative stage
*declarative statements are eliminated
*repeated and practiced
Autonomous stage
"automatic"
-practice becomes streamlined and automatic
-free up wking memory
*able to engage in 1+ activities
-declarative is gone
educational implications
-initial development of declarative
-rehearse
*allows for autonomaticity to occur
-Feedback must be provided to fix errors in declarative (associative)
metacognitive thinking
-knowing how we learn
*awareness of learning
*knowledge of learning/memory and strengths/weaknesses
*knowledge of usefulness of strategies for different purpose
observational learning
-attention: factors to effect when we pay attention
-retention: factors influencing retention
-production: factors affecting production
-Motivation/reinforcement: factors affecting it
individual differences related to memory model
-memory capacity
-duration of info in memory store
-process info speed
-declarative knowledge
-procedural knowledge
social organization
being cautious of social/ethical backgrounds and rules
participation structure
formal/informal rules for how to take part in an activity
sally does well so she can be competent engineer
identified
janelle a A and was proud of her hardwork. she attributed her grade to her effort and ability (internal). according to self efficacy theory her beliefs affect self efficacy
improve
attributions best for increase in future motivation of learned helplessness
poor strategies
provide student with choices in activities
consistent with recommendations
TET which represents best example of effective way to communicate problems?
Charles, when you tap your pencil like that you are disturbing others and making it difficult for them to work
Best short term strategy for students bumping elbows while one person tries to take notes
administer punishment suitable for behavior
action possibilities
knowledge of what can be done
beliefs about consequences
value aspect of action
-goals
*mastery goals: wanting to learn
*performance goals: competetion
*social solidaritary: please someone else
*internalized future utility: long term goals
*extrinsic: for rewards
deci and ryans
-needs
*competence
*relatedness
*self-determination
-regulation
*external-external rewards
*introjected: to avoid guilt, build ego, out do someone
*integrated: toward future goal, important domain
Identified: " "
self efficacy
beliefs in ones capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required t produce given attainments
factors that influence self efficacy
-past mastery goals (internal vs. external and stable vs. unstable)
-vicarious experiences
-social persuasion
performance approach goals
demonstrate high competency to self and others
performance avoidance
avoiding demonstrating incompetence to self or others
learning/mastery goals
improving/increasing competence
internalized future utility goals
school perceived as instrument to acheiving future goals
extrinsic goals
pursue extrinsic goals
social solidarity goals
pursue social solidarity goals. try to please others
learned helplessness
learned tendency of studnet to give up trying to learn
individual accountability
-traditional study group
*no team reward
-jigsaw
*no team score
*each team member is assigned different part of material
group reward-no individual account.
-group term paper/project
-learning together
group reward-individual account
-student teams acheivement division
*students help each other buy quiz individually
-team/games tourney
*students answer questions against other teams. which ever answer most gets more points
-team assisted individualization
*each member has individual work and goes at own pace
interpersonal relations
working with ppl who differ we are more likely to dispel stereotypes
mainstreaming
cooperation groups that include mainstreamed students with and without exceptionalities, cooper. groups have been effective in fostering both moral and social perspectives.
self esteem
students report liking others more and being liked by others
voluntary minorities
ppl who have moved more/less voluntarily to US for economic well being
involuntary minorities
brought to US against their will
primary cultural differences
diff that existed before two groups came in contact
secondary cultural differences
diff that arose after 2 populations came in contact
cultural inversion
tendency for involuntary minorities to regard certain forms of behavior
primary cultural diff vs. secondary diff in schools
having primary/secondary cultural differences can effect school achievement in many ways. your goals and motivation can be greatly altered due to these
influencing change in learned helplessness
-use persuasion to encourage participation
-assess current ability
-select moderately challenging tasks
-provide guided practice, encouragement
teaching-learing situations
-knowing what does/not work for yourself
-fostering knowledge of action possibilities
*state possibilities for action
*clarify consequences of expected actions
-cultured inversion
-self regulation
-exstrinsic rewards that undermine motivation
-extrinsic rewards that DONT undermine motivation
cultural inversion
-understand nature of problem
-minimize peer support for opposition
-teach "accomodation without assimilation"
-teach self regulation
extrinsic rewards that undermine motivation
-given simply for engaging in task
-given for completeing task
-that vary with performance quality
extrinsic rewards that DONT undermine motivation
-given for quality performance
- + verbal feedback
types of reinforcement and punishment in operant conditioning theory
stimulus added -> a. behavior + -> + reinforcement
-> b. behavoir - -> Type 1
stimulus - -> a. behavior - ->Type II
->b. behavior + -> - reinforcement
no consequence -> behavior - -> Exstinction
focusing primarily on end of unit grading
summativce
focusing primarily on monitoring student prgress during instruction
formative
concept of reliability
consistant when test is repeated
standard deviation
spread of scores around a mean
which group of numbers will have the largest standard deviation
the one with largest range
what does % among 6th grade social studies with a score of 62 mean
raw score was better than 62% of sixth graders
on class report what does sharon OPI score tell us
she is at advanced level in math
What does jessicas score tell us about "patterns and algebraic reasoning"
out of 100 she got 85 right
which subtest represents worst area for susan
perimeter and area
best way to assess students ability to synthesize and evaluate
essay
multiple choice short coming
very time consuming to write
characteristic of authentic assessment procedure
student performance with tasks resemble real world
t/f portfolios foster self reflection
T
t/f shows knowledge compared to other
F
t/f shows growth over year
T
best for writing a short answer question
answer ______________
best for t/f type question
according to carngie, education thru 12th should be manadatory
best complies with matching
3 answers
5 composers
norm referenced evaluation
evaluating performance "in terms of person's position in a reference group that has been administered the (same) assessment"
*compared to others who took the same type of tests compared to the group
criterion-referenced evaluation
evaluating a person's performance on an assessment in comparison "to a set performance standard"
*Rubric, measuring work against specific criteria
placement evaluation
-forming instructional groups
-planning instruction, where to start
formative evaluation
-monitoring student progress
-not for grade
-used to guide instructional decisions
diagnostic testing
-ID specific causes of learning problems
-used for planning remediation
summative evaluation
-judging the quality of final instructional outcomes
*student performance (grades)
*teaching/instruction
*the curriculum
reliability
the extent to which test results are consistent
validity
extent to which test reults are useful for their intended purpose
observed score
true score + Error
why reliability and validity are important
-to feel confident that a test's results are useful for our purpose we need evidence
standard deviation
subtract score from mean then square it. add all the x2 together divide by number of scores and take square root.
why standardized tests are standard
-they are useful for accountability reasons
-they provide norms or criteria for evaluation
-usually well constructed
-provide evidence of reliability and validity
-have clear procedures for administration and scoring
percentile scores
the percentage of people in the norm group the person did as well or better than