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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
describe how children and their parents socialize one another (reciprocal socialization)
parents socialize child: social rules, appropriate behavior, social conventions, traditions

child socializing parent: what is in/out, styles, trends, lingo, embaressing behavior, technology
compare and contrast the four parenting styles discussed in class
authoritarian, permissive, authoritative, and univovled
authoritative style
-controlling yet warm
-expect mature behavior from children
-tend to favor inductive disciplinary techniques
*give explanations
*teach to respect others views
*negotiate terms with children
authoritarian style
-place high value on conformity and obedience
-harsh and rejecting when their children dont comply
-tend to be distant and cold
-can expect children to act mature at early age
-tend to favor power assertive disciplinary techniques
*no reasoning
-engage in little give-and-take dialog
permissive
-warm and communicative
-overly tolerant, permit too much freedom for child to make own decisions before they are ready
-may appear incompetent in parenting, have need to please, do not want to upset child, or want to be friends with child more than a parent
univolved style
-undemanding, but not warm
-not committed to their roles as caregivers
-unable or unwilling to meet any needs of their children that require inconvenience on thier part
*workaholic
-often overwhelmed by the many stresses in their lives
*prone to depression and alcholism
authoritative children
-high self esteem, friendly, energetic
-internalized moral standards
-high academic achievement
-adjust easier to family trauma
-independent, achievement-oriented behavior in girls
-cooperative social behavior in boys
authoratarian children
-anxious and insecure around peers
-can be withdrawn and mistruting of others
-can have low self-esteem and poor social skills
-react with hostility when frustrated
-girls lack independence and achievement motivation
-boys who show high rates of anger and defiance
permissive children
-immature
-difficulty controlling impulses
-demanding
-dependent on adults
-dificulty staying on-task in classroom
-disobedient when parental or teacher requests conflicted with momentary desires
univolved children
-2 yr child:
*behind in intellectual functioning
*behind in social functioning
*show disrupted attachment
*tend to be angry, noncomplient, and dependent
-teens:
*have low tolerance for frustration
*are low in self esteem
*lack long-term goals
*are more likely to be adjudicated as deliquents
parental co-regualtion
sensitive transfer of control from parents to child during middle and late childhood that is consistent with child's ability to accept the responsibility
autonomy
takin care of self and being responsible for own behavior (accepting consequences)
individuation
-pyschological autonomy from parents
-re-examining values, beliefes, attitudes, etc. which were uncritically adopted from parents during childhood
families high on individuation
-family members able to have and express own opinions
-connectedness: individuals open to, and respectful of, opinions of others even when disagreeing
families on low individuation
-high value on avoiding disagreement
-high value on family conformity
factors that ease the stress of divorce on children and teens
-parents and teachers maintain firm expectations whie being warm and supportive
-children/teens feel listened to
-children/teens have support from friends and other family members
factors that increase the stress of divorce
-adjusting to new parent and siblings
-conflicts of loyalty
responses to divorce that are typical of adolescents
-self-blame
-unrealistic hopes for reconciliation
-trouble with own friendships and romantic relationships
responses to divorce that are typical of children
usually do not anticipate divorce, even when there is extreme marital discord
impact of divorce on roles within the family and family finances
-financial setbacks
-working out childcare/custody
parental facetors most closely associated with neglect/abuse
-lack interpersonal skills
-low self esteem
-poor impulse control
-external locus of control
-heightened response to stress
-alcohol or drug dependence
child factors that are more likely to elicit parental aggresion/abuse
-premature/low birth weight
-poor physical health
-metal retardation ro poor mental health
-difficult temperment
-hyperactivity
teachers role in reporting child abuse
-bruises, burns, other injuries
-jumpiness
-extremes of aggressiveness or withdrawl
-cloting inappropriate to weather
-uncharacteristic knowledge of sexual matters
sociometric category
Popular: like most-high; like least-low
Neglected: like most-low; like least-low
Controversial: like most-high; like least-high
Rejected: like most-low; like least-high
popular children
-more friendly and cooperative than other groups
-more likely to be leaders
-communicate clearly
-good social problem solvers
-report high quality friendships
neglected children
-socailly skilled as average students buy often prefer to play or work alone
-often perceived as shy
-often have satisfying social relationships outside of school setting
-given a change in peer group these students are most likely to change their status category
controversial children
seem to evoke strong opinions-to be either loved or hated by classmates
*class clowns
*leaders in low status groups
rejected children
-may be agressive
-may be submissive
-immature insocial interactions
-poor social problem solvers
-have friends, but rate friendships as low in quality
-associated with other problems:
*school drop outs
*cant hold job
*marriage difficulty
benefits of friendships
-companionship
-stimulation
-physical support
-ego support
-social comparison information
-intimacy/affection
cliques
-small size
-members all know each other
-greater cohesion
-membership is not stable
-give teens image so can differentiate selves from other children
crowds
-larger than cliques
-members may not all know each other
-similarities in dress or activity
-not particularly cohesive
-serve important function in identity formation
factors that increase the likelihood that a child will engage in prosocial behavior
-prescence of prosocial models in home, school
-reinforcement
-parenting style/home environment
family factors associated with the development of aggresive behaviors in youths
-raised in homes where aggresive and coercive interactions were modeled
biological factors associated with the development of aggressive youth
influenced by temperment
characteristics of aggressive children
-less empathy for peers
-poor social problem solbing skills
-can have deficits in empathy and perspective-taking
-use good perspective taking skills
proactive forms of aggression in children
-initiate aggresive act
-linked to negative interpersonal outcomes
reactive forms of aggression in children
-react aggressively when provoked
identify personal attributes associated with children who bully
-gain attention even if it is negative
-gain fearful reactions from others
-sense of power and control
-directed at particular victim
ID personal attributes of victims of bullies
-inhibited, fearful temperment
-physically frial
-lack many friends
-may have interactions with parents taht lead to anxiety, low self esteem and dependency
the "problem" of teen sexuality
-gap between biological maturity and social acceptance of sexuality
-long time to wait
"trusting to love"
-unrealistic idealism
*belief that sex in long term relationships is safe without condoms
*prominent among young women
*fails to take into account sexual history of partner
*overestimates stability of relationships
*underestimates infidelity
*overlooks phenomenon of serial monogamy
*insistance of condom use my imply lack of mistrust
"not me"
-Personal fable
*considers AIDS in terms of "risk" groups
*have strong steretypes of "AIDS victims" which are seen as different from themselves
*since infection may go undetected for a long period of time risky behaviors are not discouraged through immediate negative consequences
*some teems accurately perceive themselves as being at high risk but still dont take precautions
"you can tell by looking"
-people who are clean, healthy and beautiful are perceived as being safe on the basis of attributes
-belief that beign infected goes along with being unattractive and of lower social class
sex education
-no evidence of sex ed leading to earlier or increased sexual activity in the yong people who were exposed to it
-6 studies showed that sex ed led either to delay or decrease in overall sex activity
-10 studies showed that ed programs increased safer sex practices among young people who were already sexually active
-can lead to contracptive use and lower sexual partner
environmental factors that influence physical development
-nutrition
-adequate nurturance
*emotional unavaliablity cancause growth problems and lead to death
-medical care
-health of caregiver
-sanitary living conditions
-childhood injuries adn disease
secular trend
-earlier onset of puberty
-larger physical stature
*bigger babies
male pubertal changes
-subtle cahnges begin around 11.5
-spermarchy around 15
-shoulders widen relative to hips
-large increase in muscle tissue
-increase in number of RBC
-determination of unusual timing:
*early: testicular growth age 9
*late: absence of changes at 14
female pubertal changes
-changes begin around 11
-hipswiden relative to shoulders
-increase in muscle tissue
-menarche
-determination of unusual timing:
*early: breast budding before 8
*Late: absence of changes at 13
"early bloomers"
-boys
*positive: most likely helps with confidence, better social status, athletic ability
-Girls
*less positive, overwhelming: look more mature than age, may get attentioin of older guys, may lead to risky behavior
what characteristics does a child abuser most likely possess
unmanageable stress
bullying
-sense of power and control
-directed at particular victims
gang
-no easy to get out of
-selective members
-violant behavior
progression of dating
-going together
*middle school
-group "dates"
*timing related to social setting (when it is important in school)
-individual dates
*timing related to social setting
anorexia
starvation
bulemia
binging and purging