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37 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 efferent columns in the brainstem? What does each control?
1. GSE - extraocular muscles and the tongue
2. GVE - parasympathetics in the brainstem
3. SVE - branchial arch muscles
Why are the visceral efferents that control branchiomeric muscles in the brainstem special?
Because there are none in the spinal cord.
Which efferent column is most
-Medial
-Lateral
Medial = GSE (eye/tongue)
Lateral = SVE (branchiom. mm)
Where are the efferent columns in the spinal cord?
In the ventral horn
What type of efferents are in the ventral horn?
General Somatic - GSE
What do the most medial columns control?
What do the most lateral columns control?
Medial = axial muscles
Lateral = limb muscles
Where are the autonomic GVEs in the spinal cord?
In the interomediolateral cell columns
What type of GVEfferents are in the interomediolateral cell columns?
SNS and PNS
What gives supranuclear innervation to the efferents in the brainstem and spinal cord?
-Corticobulbar tracts
-Corticospinal tracts
Where is the corticobulbar tract with reference to the corticospinal tract?
Medial to it
What cranial nerves in the brainstem carry GSEs to somatic muscles?
3, 4, 6, and 12
What are the 4 nuclei for Parasympathetic GVEs in the brainstem?
1. Edinger westphal
2. Superior salivatory
3. Inferior salivatory
4. DMNX
What GVefferent comes out of Edinger Westphal? Where does it go, via what CN, to do what?
CN III goes to Ciliary ganglion to constrict the pupil.
What GVefferent comes out of Superior Salivatory? Where does it go, via what CN, to do what?
-CN VII goes to pterygopalatine ganglion, to slobber from the submandib and sublingual glands.
What GVefferent comes out of Inferior Salivatory? Where does it go, via what CN, to do what?
CN IX goes to otic ganglion, to the parotid gland for more slobber.
What GVefferent comes out of DMNX? Where does it go, via what CN, to do what?
CN X - goes to the thorax and abdomen to do lots of stuff
What are the 3 autonomic reflexes in the brain? What are they stimulated by?
-Pupillary - stim by light
-Salivary - stim by taste
-Carotid sinus - stim by increased BP
Why are Special visceral efferents special?
Because they're only in the brainstem.
What do special visceral efferents innervate?
Branchial arch derived muscles
What 4 nuclei are involved in SVEs? What cranial nerve corresponds to each?
-Motor nu: of V - CN V
-Facial motor nu: - CN VII
-Nucleus ambiguus - CN IX / X
-Accessory nucleus - CN XI
What does the motor nucleus of V target?
Muscles of mastication
What does the facial motor nucleus target?
Muscles of facial expression
What does nucleus ambiguus via CN IX target?
Stylopharyngeus
What does nucleus ambiguus via CN X target?
Muscles of the throat and neck
What does the accessory nucleus target?
Trapezius
Sternocleidomastoid
Where do the nerves for these SVEs exit the spinal cord?
More laterally than ventrally
What are the 4 brainstem reflexes?
1. Blink
2. Jaw-jerk
3. Vestibulo-ocular
4. Gag
What stimulates the blink reflex?
Corneal irritation
What nerve senses corneal irritation?
CN V-1
What is the blink reflex pathway? (4 steps)
1. Sense via CN V1
2. Synapse in Spinal Nu of V
3. Motor nucleus of VII
4. VII innervates orbicularis oculi
What is the Jaw jerk reflex stimulated by?
Tapping a relaxed jaw to cause it to close
What senses the jaw tap?
Proprioceptive stretch receptors innervated by CN V3
Where does the jaw tap sensation go?
To the mesencephalic nucleus of V, to the trigeminal motor nucleus
What is the response to the jaw jerk stimulus?
CN V3 stimulates the muscles of mastication to close.
What is the vestibuloocular reflex?
Coordination of head and eye movements.
What are the 4 steps of the vestibuloocular reflex?
1. Vestibular organ senses spin
2. Vestibular nuclei recieve info
3. Send info to oculomotor nuclei
4. Ocular motor neurons move eyes.
What nerves and nucleus are involved in the gag reflex?
1. CN IX senses gag
2. Sends info to nuleus ambiguus
3. CN IX and X respond