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166 Cards in this Set

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The F Scale
On the MMPI, this scale is used as a measure of the respondent's tendency to exaggerate their symptoms. The items in this scale were infrequently endorsed by members of the general population. If these items are endorsed, it suggests that they may be carelessly or randomly responding so as to appear more troubled. Before interpreting this scale though, you should know that sometimes elevations are due to other issues than psychopathology, such as differences in cultural background, and poor reading skills. Of course, they really could be disturbed.
Face-Hand Test
If a clinician suspects psychogenic hemiparesis, this test may be conducted. With the patient in a supine position, the patient's arm is raised over the face and then dropped. If it is psychogenic hemiparesis, then they won't allow themselves to be hit in the face, typically. This is also the term used for a test of double simultaneous stimulation-it may be both hands, one hand/one cheek (face!), or both cheeks.
Facial Recognition Test
Test developed by Benton et al to assess visual perception. A number of photographs of unfamiliar faces. Each person has had a number of photographs taken under different lighting conditions or from different angles. The test is sensitive to right hemisphere lesions, particularly in the posterior aspect of the right hemisphere.
Factitious Disorder
It is what it sounds like. Symptoms (physical or psychological) that are intentionally produced so as to meet the individual's need to adopt the "sick role". The need to adopt these symptoms is related more to internal needs than to the possibility of external gain seen with malingering. (eg. Munchausen's syndrome)
Factor analysis
The purpose of factor analysis is: (1) to reduce the number of variables and (2) to detect structure in the relationships between variables, that is to classify variables. Therefore, factor analysis is applied as a data reduction or structure detection method (the term factor analysis was first introduced by Thurstone, 1931).
Failure to Thrive
when the growth of an infant or child is drastically and significantly below what is normally expected given their age and gender. Malnutrition is the most likely culprit, and significant deficits may be seen in all areas of functioning and may not be seen until later in life (i.e., emotional, cognitive and social functions).
False Negative
Most often called Type II error. When your stats say that something isn't there, when it really is. AKA beta error.
False Positive
Type I error or alpha error. When the tests say it is there and it isn't. The way to keep them straight is to remember which comes first alphabetically speaking: Negative comes before positive and is type II and beta, while false positive is type I and alpha)
Falx cerebri
This is a piece of the dura that separates the two hemispheres of the cerebrum.
Familial tremor
a "benign" tremor that seems to run in families, it is also called an essential tremor. Seen when the patient is at rest, though not the pill rolling tremor of Parkinson's disease. Sometimes treated effectively with beta blockers.
Famous Faces Test
This consists of B/W photographs of people who became famous in the 1920s through the 1970s. Subjects are asked to identify the individuals in the picture, then in the recognition component, picures taken when the individuals were young are paired with pohotographos of them (if they were still famous) when they were old.
The test was updated in 1993 and now has pictures of 85 people who were famous from the 1940s tthrough the 1990s. Korsakoff patients demonstrated a temporal gradient (more recently famous were not as well remembered as those that were famous earlier, but that was for the first version). On the second version, Alzheimer patients were impaired on all conditions, but a temporal gradient was seen, with impairments for spontaneous naming or naming with semantic cues did not vary with decades.
Fantastic Confabulation
A fictitious story with events that could never have occurred to the individual.
FAS Test
Controlled Oral Word Association (COWA), a verbal fluency test using the letters F, A and S. The patient is required to name as many words beginning with one letter in 60 seconds. One letter at a time is used.
Fasciculation
Involuntary twitching of a muscle-interpreted as a sign of muscle denervation. Not to be confused with fibrillation which isn't in the dictionary, but should be. A fasciculation is visible under the skin, a fibrillation is not, though it is a small, local, involuntary muscular contraction due to spontaneous activation of single muscle cells or muscle fibers.
Fasciculus
A bundle of nerve fibers
FBS
Stands for Fasting Blood Sugar, a measure of blood glucose level, taken after at least 8 hours of fasting.
Featural Analysis
A method of constructing a percept by analyzing the individual features of the object or scene.
Febrile Seizure
See Seizure-not helpful. A febrile seizure is one associated with the occurrence of elevated body temperature. It is identfied as a pediatric diagnosis. Adults can have seizures with high fevers too, but they're not called febrile seizures when adults have them. The main point is that these occur in patients who do not have epilepsy.
fenestrated
having an opening or openings. Fenestra is an opening in a body part.
Festinating Gait
AKA propulsive gait, which means that there is a tendency to fall forward when walking, but also an involuntary tendency to take short accelerating steps when walking.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
Not to be confused with the verbal fluency test. This is a constellation of symptoms seen in individuals who were exposed prenatally to ETOH during the first trimester. The symptoms or characteristics include microcephaly, difficulties in coordination, low or decreased birth weight, facial anomalies and frequently, low IQ (generally within the MR range, but not always so).
FFM
this is described as "Fine Finger Movement", but that's all that's given. Apparently you just have to know the term.
Fibromyalgia Syndrome
This is a chronic disorder, sometimes misdiagnosed as lupus (without the benefit of proper blood tests), and most frequently with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. The symptoms include: irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, sleep disturbance, joint stiffness, musculoskeletal pain and fatigue as well as multiple tender points and other symptoms.
Fifteen Item Test
AKA Rey 15-Item Test or Rey 3 x 5 Test. Used to determine whether and individual is exaggerating/feigning memory problems. They are shown a number of items with a high level of redundancy within the items. All but the most severely impaired patients are deficient on this task and consequently, almost everyone does well on it.
Figural fluency
Perhaps best known is the Ruff Figural fluency task. Developed as a non-verbal analogue to verbal fluency tasks, the individual is asked to produce as many unique geometric designs or figures as possible within a time limit. Other tests are the Design Fluency Test, The Five Point Test, and Glosser and Goodglass's Graphic Pattern Generation task (which only allows the drawing of four lines for each pattern produced).
Finger Agnosia
Agnosia (gr. without knowing)the ability of the individual to identify/name, without the benefit of seeing, the finger(s) that are being touched. Often linked to Gerstmann's syndrome, usually bilateral. Gerstmann's is associated with lesions in the left inferior parietal lobe/angular gyrus. Though failure on this task may be due to multiple reasons not just a lesion in that area. Possible alternatives are: disturbance in attention, sensory deficit, aphasic misnaming, or a spatial deficit.
The Finger Localization Test asks the individual to do what?
Name the finger touched, point to the finger touched on an outline indicate the finger that was touched by the number assigned to it. Developed by Arthur Benton et al.
The Finger Tapping Test is a good measure of motor speed. Describe the test.
A tapping machine in which a key is attached to a counter that registers how many times the key has been depressed and allowed to return to its normal position. The mechanism is attached to a board and the individual is required to use one finger to depress the key while keeping the rest of the hand as still as possible. It is a part of the Halstead-Reitan Battery and usually consists of 5 trials on each hand lasting for 10 seconds per each trial.
Dysmetria can be assessed using what test?
Finger-nose-finger. The patient is asked to touch the examiner's extended finger, touch their own nose and then touch the examiner's finger as quickly as possible. Inability to accurately move between finger and nose is called dysmetria, and is a possible indicator of cerebellar dysfunction.
Graphesthesia is a measure of _______ and the numbers _____ and ____ are written ______. What battery is this from?
sensory perception; 3,4,5 and 6; on the fingertips; It is from the Reitan-Klove Sensory Perceptual Exam.
When giving the Finger-Nose test, if the patient is not able to accurately touch their nose it is called ______ and if they overshoot it is called ______
dysmetria; hypermetria.
A sulcus is also called a ______?
fissure
fist-edge-palm is a type of
a. tropical plant
b. sleight of hand trick
c. cortical dysplasia
d. sequencing task
d. sequencing task. a motor sequencing task to be precise. It was developed by A.R. Luria to assess motor programming ability.
A fistula may develop anywhere. What is a fistula?
It is a communicating passage between two (normally separated) areas that has developed as the result of disease, trauma or genetic anomaly.
Serotinin is also known as ____?
5HT
In paralysis, a lack of muscle tone is called what?
Flaccid or flaccid paralysis
Asterixis is also referred to as
a. a resting tremor
b. an intention tremor
c. a flapping tremor
d. a key on a computer keyboard
c. flapping tremor-rapid and sporadic contraction of a limb with a slow return to extension.
Extensor muscles cause extension of the limb, flexor muscles cause what?
When contracted, flexors cause bending or flexing of the limb.
Floccillation
lint picking, a constant picking at ones clothes sometimes accompanied by chewing movements.
Floor effect
Opposite of ceiling effect. the performance of the subject is below the level of meausurement provided by the assessment instrument.
Fluency
is assessed by three things, ease of articulation, speed of response and grammitical accuracy or use of sentence structure.
An aphasia that is not characterized by broken, telegraphic speech and where articulation and speech production are not affected is called ______________
Fluent aphasia
Fluent Speech
vocal output is articulate and notable for falling within the realms of accepted prosody, rate and quantity.
Fluid Intelligence
The ability to adapt to novel ideas or commands in order to meet current demands. There is less dependence on cultural lore or norms and formal educational background. Conceptualized by Cattell, fluid intelligence is believed to increase through childhood and adolescence but start to decrease in the twenties.
The tendency for scores of the general population to rise over time is called the __________?
Flynn effect. The level of gain is directly related to the number of years since test standardization.
Focal Retrograde amnesia
The one characteristic that stands out here is that learning ability is not diminished as a consequence. This is a very severe and chronic retrograde amnesia.
Folate-A B vitamin is important to what?
it is involved in the synthesis of amino acids and DNA. its deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia.
The Folstein Mini Mental Status Exam is a short questionnaire often used as a screening tool for what?
Alzheimer's disease. it is a brief examination of simple memory, orientation, visual spatial copying and language. Not so good for sub-cortical dementias or vascular dementias.
The GREAT big HOLE at the base of the skull.
The foramen magnum (foramen, a hole; magnum, great)
The opening between the fourth ventricle and the subarachnoid space is named after whom and what is it called?
it is named after Francois Magendie and it is called the Foramen of Magendie.
Alexander Monro has been honored in what way?
The Foramen of Monro which is the foramen on either side of the thrid ventricle and connects that structure to the lateral ventricles.
Foramen of Monro
bilateral foramen (connects on the left and right side) in the diencephalon that connects the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle.
Foramina of the Fourth Ventricle
The foramina of Luschka are lateral (lateral=Luschka) and connect fourth ventricle to subarachnoid space. The medial foramen of magendie also connects the fourth ventricle and subarachnoid space.
Which testing method has applications in symptom validity?
Forced choice testing. As a methodology, when subjects are required to respond (in a multiple choice format) even if they aren't sure of the answer. Precise response probabilities can be calculated and it has the added bonus that it can test memory without the person being aware that it is testing memory.
Name another structure in the ancient brain classification system (e.g. diencephalon, telencephalon...)
Prosencephalon AKA the forebrain, Rhombencephalon is the hind brain
The Foreign Accent Syndrome is characterized in what way?
The individual exhibits marked changes in prosody, speaking rhythm and cadence. Usually associated with a small infarct in the sensorimotor cortex. There are also associations with mild language impairment, though it is not always associated therewith. Accents are usually described as Scandinavian, swiss or french. Japanese may sound Korean.
Forgetting
What happened to most of the things you learned in graduate school-There's another definition in the book that describes a loss of previously acquired information over time (which is loosely described as anywhere between the immediate recall/short delay and long delay conditions of any memory measure and is usually expressed as a percentage of the information retained from the short delay or immediate recall condition.
What is the fornix and what does the name mean?
Here's how it was taught to me. The fornix is an arch. The Romans were really keen on these aqueducts built a long time ago to manage water distribution. Well, prostitutes used to hang out around the arches to pick up customers (in boats?, I don't know), anyway I'll be you can guess another word, more related to prostitution than to neuropsychology, that has a similar Latin base? Anyway, this structure is an efferent tract coming from the subiculum and the hippocampus. It arches over the thalamus and then connects with sructures in the diencephalon and telencephalon with about one half of the fibers in the fornix coming to connect in the mammillary bodies. Draw your own conclusions.
Fovea
It is rude to point your fovea at someone because, in most cases, that would mean you were staring at them. This particular area of the retina has the greatest level of innervation and has the greatest acuity, so, if you wanted to see something as well as you possibly could, you would look directly at it, or point your fovea at it! In daylight anyway
Fragile X syndrome
XY makes a guy-well sort of-When the fragile X is present, it pretty much means that the person is mentally retarded and other issues. The syndrome is characterized by a nonstaining gap of the long arm of the X chromosome. It occurs at a specific site on the chromosome. Only the males are described, though it is possible for females to be classified as fragile X. In a male, there may be a long face with a prominent chin, floppy ears macro-orchidism (does everyone else know what this means? I looked it up-abnormal enlargement of the testes), without any obvious endocrine problems. Cognitive/neuropsychological/
neurological symptoms include delayed development of language and motor skills. There is also the likelihood of hyperactivity. Many of these individuals also carry diagnoses of autism because they demonstrate autistic features such as poor eye contact, poor social skills and fascination with spinning things, though this latter sign is not pathognomonic.
Fragment completion
similar to the Hooper visual organization test...except that the subject is shown a picture in its completed condition and then must identify it when it is presented in fragmented form.
Free Radicals
not to be confused with New Radicals (a rock group). A cytotoxic substance, composed of unpaired electrons in its outer orbits. These substances are thought to be highly neurotoxic and are also believed to be secondary causes of injury in TBI as they are released by trauma.
Free recall
In memory tests, after presentation of a list/story/word pairs, or after a delay, the subject is asked to recall as much information as they can. This is a free recall trial. No cues or structure is provided other than to identify what it is they are being asked to recall.
Freedom from Distractibility Index
This scale is from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III which has since been revised. There is no longer a freedom from distractibility index in the WISC, but it was composed of those subtests most susceptible to distraction: Arithmetic and Digit Span. It was comparable to the Working Memory Index of the WAIS-III.
When an individual Parkinson's is temporarily unable to move, they are said to be...
freezing. It occurs frequently in doorways or when the pattern of floor tile or covering changes.
Frenchay Aphasia Screening Test (FAST)
a brief test of (acquired) language impairment. It cannot tell you what kind of aphasia a person has, only that they have it. It will assess comprehension, expression reading and writing, but only at a screening level.
Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment
Another tool developed by the same guy (see FAST) to assess dysarthria resulting from either central or peripheral nervous system injuries. 11 areas are assessed on a 9 point scale. The areas are: reflex (Coughing and swallowing), Respiration, Lips, jaw, palate, laryngeal, tongue, intelligibility, rate, sensation and influencing factors (i.e., sight, teeth, language, mood, and posture).
Friedreich's ataxia
named after a German neurologist-the ataxia is hereditary and is seen as a progressive disturbance in gait, though it can affect speech too. Also called hereditary spinal ataxia, cognitive functions are left undisturbed, though there may be emotional lability.
gait apraxia
frontal gait-inability to walk even though while lying in a bed, one is able to make all of the movements associated with walking. They may appear to be "stuck" to the floor. This is seen in Parkinson's patients, patients with frontal lobe lesions and patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus.
frontal release signs
Most commonly associated with diffuse cerebral impairment. These include grasp, snout, rooting and palmomental and glabellar reflexes. They were originally associated with lesions in the frontal lobes.
FTA-ABS test
a test for syphilis, it stands for fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption, usually done after other tests for STDs such as VDRL or RPR test as read as positive.
Assumption of a new identity due to amnesia and wandering away from one's former style of life is referred to as a ________?
fugue state.
How are the frontal lobes delineated within the cerebrum?
By the central sulcus and the Sylvian fissure.
What do the frontal lobes contain?
The motor, premotor and prefrontal areas. The motor area is Brodmann's area 4. This gyrus contains pyramidal cells, implicated as the primary area for voluntary motor function.
If stimulated electrically, the __________ has the _______ threshold and shortest _________producing movement.
motor cortex, lowest, latency
You might guess that the ______ is anterior to the precentral gyrus.
premotor area-Brodmann's 6 and 8.
The _____________ is located in the medial premotor cortex.
Supplementary motor area-SMA
The frontal lobe is frequently broken down into the following areas:
lateral (dorsolateral), mesial, and orbitofrontal areas.
This syndrome is generally associated with difficulty generating hypotheses, demonstrating mental flexibility or shifting sets, e.g., WCST. Also seen are reductions in verbal and non-verbal fluency, difficulties in development of organizational strategis...
Executive dysfunction syndrome
An apathetic patient who doesn't speak spontaneously, answers questions in monosyllables, and demonstrates transient abulic hypokinesia could be said to be demonstrating what?
Mesial frontal/anterior cingulate syndrome.
Mesial/frontal anterior cingulate syndrome when seen in its most severe form is caused by what?
bilateral lesions of the anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann's area 24). Unilateral lesions usually result in transient symptoms. These patients may perform normally on many tests, but do poorly on response inhibition tasks (i.e., go/no go task).
Personality changes, emotional lability, irritability, impulsivity, outspokenness and enslavement to environmental cues characterize the ____________
orbital frontal syndrome.
Lesions causing the symptoms of orbital frontal syndrome occur on the _________ of the __________. There is a great deal of connectivity to structures of the _______ such as the _________. This may be disrupted following severe closed head injury.
undersurface, orbital lobes. limbic system, amygdala
The premotor area is ______ to the prefrontal cortex.
posterior
Full Scale IQ or FSIQ is the best predictor of ?
academic and occupational achievement
An FSIQ from the WAIS-III is most likely to be 3 points ____ than an FSIQ from a WAIS-R and 8 points ____ than one from a WAIS.
lower
The FSIQ is a composite measure of ___________
General intellectual functioning.
A closed class word or functor, which conveys grammatical information is also called what?
a function word
Examples of function words include all except:
a. pronouns
b. conjunctions
c. adverbs
d. articles
c. adverbs
This term says that the residual function of tissue that is resected during temporal lobectomy determines the degree of difference between pre and post surgical scores.
Functional adequacy
If one is found to have a hippocampus with a large degree of functional capacity and they undergo a resection, they are most likely to show the ________ degree of memory decline.
Greatest
An inability to remember autobiographical information is a component of what disorder?
functional amnesia
A functional disorder has no known _____ ______.
physiologic/structural etiology. A psychiatric or psychological source is considered to be the underlying problem.
Measures of functional independence and general functionality (cognitive/emotional/social) that are ordinal in nature are referred to as...
Functional Assessment Measure and Functional Independence Measure
Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a measure of what?
Changes in blood flow during sensory, cognitive and motor tasks while the subject is within the MRI gantry. These changes are interpreted as measures of structural functionality.
The idea that after trauma or injury, the remaining parenchyma and portions of the central nervous system reorganize and take over the functions impaired by the injury.
Functional reorganization-the concept has been supported by research on individuals following focal injuries.
The term "functional reserve" is often used with "functional capacity" or "functional adequacy". What type of procedure is often affiliated with their use?
Anterior temporal lobectomy, though in theory can be applied to any area undergoing ablation in which functionality can be assessed.
Functional reserve is a concept of brain functioning that says someone with little functional reserve in the remaining tissue will have the ____ decline in memory.
greatest
Functor
a closed class or function word
This term, usually heard in eye exams, describes the aspect of the eye that is furthest away from the main opening.
Fundus
Fungus
types of yeast or mold. Fungal infections are treated with antifungal agents.
An elevated body temperature with no known etiology is called ________
Fever of unknown origin (FUO)
Describe location of the fusiform gyrus.
It is on the inferior aspect of the temporal lobe.
Where is the basal language area located and what deficits are expected if it is resected?
It is located on the temporal lobe and is often included in the fusiform gyrus. Resection does not necessarily result in postoperative language decline.
Who was Phineas Gage and what was he famous for?
a worker in the 19th century who was unfortunate enough to have a tamping iron penetrate his skull and frontal lobe. His significant personality change as a result of this injury (from a responsible worker to impulsivity and poor judgment) demonstrated the importance of the frontal lobes.
GSR, galvanic skin response, is used in what way?
changes in skin conductance, as a consequence of sweat gland activity, occur in response to psychologic and physiologic stimuli and it is often used to measure levels of arousal and emotion. Though the term is not the preferable one, the preferred terms are: SCR (skin conductance response), SRR (skin resistance response) and SPR (skin potential response).
What does GOAT stand for and what is it?
The Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test is used to assess the duration of PTA (post traumatic amnesia)
Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is found where?
It is the major/most common inhibitory neurotransmitter within the nervous system. Benzos and barbituates bind to the postsynaptic GABA receptor.
a collective group of nerve cell bodies (usually) outside the CNS is called what?
ganglion-the only exception to this definition is the basal ganglia
Sigbert Ganser's syndrome is remarkable for what?
That it is factitious. When people pretend to go insane or lose their minds and appear to demonstrate symptoms of amnesia, hallucinations, unusual and bizarre behavior. On occasion there will be senseless and bizarre responses to questions
Jeopardy question: This individual or policy is given the responsibility of overseeing access to health care...
What is a gatekeeper?
The Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests-copyrighted in 1989, have how many levels and assess ability through what grade range?
These reading tests have nine levels and may be administered to children in kindergarten through twelfth grade.
A Gaussian distribution looks like what?
It is a normal, bell shaped distribution.
Explain the differences between vertical and lateral gaze palsy
Vertical gaze palsy is most often associated with damage to the tegmentum and is often associated with progressive supranuclear palsy. The eyes are unable to move vertically. In lateral gaze palsy, the eyes deviate (usually) towards the side of the lesion and is more common after severe right cerebral injury.
What term is used if a patient is unable to relax muscle tension on command, and there appears to be fluctuating resistance to passive stretching?
Gegenhalten-it is seen with diffuse cerebral degeneration and/or frontal lobe disease.
General paresis is associated with what CNS disease?
neurosyphilis-the term refers to the dementia associated with neurosyphilis but is not in general use any longer.
Geriatric Depression Scale
A 30 item questionnaire that is read to the patient (so as to minimize difficulties with vision and dementia, but apparently not hearing). These are yes/no questions that assess dysphoria and depression in the (you guessed it) elderly.
Angular gyrus, alexia, acalculia, right/left disorientation and finger agnosia are all symptoms of this syndrome.
What is Gerstmann's syndrome?
This developmental measure uses observations of behavior in children between the ages of 4 weeks and 6 years of age...
Gesell Developmental Schedules are empirically based assessments of functioning within the areas of motor, adaptive, language and personal social functions
Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome is characterized by what symptom(s)?
Usually called Tourette's syndrome or just Tourette's, this a disorder first seen in childhood that is characterized by tics, either motor or vocal. Copralalia is presented as the major feature of TS, but it is seen in about 60% of the patients. Vocal tics may be throat clearing or louder noises. There can also be echolalia. It is described as a rare disorder.
This is a symptom during muscle or strength testing, it is a symptom that the patient is malingering or not making a good attempt to meet the demands of the task.
Give-way weakness. The way to tell it is not a valid effort is that people with injury usually have the same amount of resistance that gradually gives way to force rather than suddenly "giving way".
Describe glabellar reflex.
Also called Meyerson's sign, this is described as one's inability to consciously inhibit an eye blinking response when tapped above the bridge of one's nose. If tapped enough times there is habituation, but this reflex can be seen in patients with Parkinson's disease, frontal lobe disease or diffuse cerebral disease. If you are schizotypal, you may not have this reflex.
If you are looking at the medical chart of someone who has been head injured, what do the initials GCS stand for?
Glasgow Coma Scale. This scale was developed as a means of indicating level of responsiveness in individuals who were unconscious. It has 3 dimensions, eye, vocal and motor. The scale goes from 3 to 15, with 3 being the least responsive and 15 being about what you are right now. Scores of 8 and below are indicative of coma, though there is some leeway when interpreting GCS scores and no standardized system to say that 9 to 12 is moderate while 13-15 is mild.
The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS)is used for what?
it is used as a measure of functioning after post traumatic brain injury. It has 5 levels, level 1 being death (the worst outcome) and level 5 being good recovery (resumption of a relatively normal life). 2=Persistent vegetative state, 3=severe disability, and 4=moderate disability.
In greek, this word means glue. These cells are supportive and non-neural and include oligodendroglis, astrocytes and microglia, among others, what are they?
Glial cells, or glia.
This type of tumor is highly malignant and most often arises from astrocytes. The tumor spreads in a characteristic "butterfly" pattern, using the corpus callosum as a major pathway through which to infiltrate the contralateral hemisphere.
What is a glioblastoma or glioblastoma multiforme?
Glioma
This primary tumor, once again, arises from cells, usually astrocytes. The good thing is that in children, it is highly responsive to treatment, the bad thing is that in adults it is not.
An overgrowth of cells in response to injury or disease.
What is gliosis?
Within the basal ganglia, what structure is described as the medial portion of the lenticular nucleus?
The globus pallidus- the pale globe is a major site for primary motor modulation and when they do a pallidotomy for Parkinson's, this is what they are targeting.
Glove and Stocking anesthesia
A characteristic sensory loss mimicking the coverage of gloves and stockings in all four limbs. This type of loss is seen in polyneuropathies and also, somatoform disorders.
Quick, name an excitatory neurotransmitter, starting with the letter G.
Glutamate, unfortunately too much glutamate leads to neurotoxicity (due to an influx of sodium and calcium) which is believed to contribute to the damage seen with strokes, TBI and hypoxia.
go/no go tasks assess what?
the ability of the individual to inhibit response after a response set has been established. Used as a measure of frontal lobe functioning, two stimuli are presented randomly at a rapid rate.
Goldstein-Scheerer Test of Abstract and Concrete Thinking.
It's pretty much what it sounds like. The idea was to test the ability to form concepts. No standardization data, these tests were developed in 1941 and were supposed to measure aspects of abstract intellectual function.
Gordon Diagnostic System.
a test of attentional functioning. It is a portable unit that runs a number of continuous performance tasks to assess vigilance and impulse control.
Gorham Proverbs Test
Using proverb interpretation, this is a test of abstraction. There is a multiple choice format version for those individuals with non-fluent aphasia.
Graded Naming Test
This test is used as a screening measure to assess naming difficulties. It consists of 30 drawings of items many of which are not known in the United States. It is similar to the BNT, but no semantic or phonemic cues can be given.
The Graham-Kendall Memory for Designs Test
A test of visual memory (short-term, there is no delayed recall) or perhaps visual attention. 15 items of varying difficulty/complexity are shown one at a time. The subject gets only 5 seconds to view the picture and then must reproduce the design from memory.
The rules of language (phonology, syntax, semantics, and morphology) are called what?
Grammar
A generalized tonic-clonic seizure used to be called...
What is a grand mal seizure?
The written representation of a sound or phoneme is called...
a grapheme.
Sir Henry Head first described the ability to recognize/identify numbers or letters as they are traced on the skin's surface.
What is graphesthesia?
This is a frontal release sign associated with diffuse injury to the frontal lobes.
The grasp reflex is a movement to grasp the object being moved across the palm or the length of the fingers despite being told not to do so. The patient has no ability to inhibit the response. Associated more with diffuse damage than with focal injury.
The Gray Oral Reading Tests.
Currently in its fourth edition, this is a test of reading accuracy, reading speed and reading comprehension. The passages increase in the level of difficulty as one moves through the test. Two forms are available.
The greek cross
Used in the Reitan-Indiana Aphasia Screening test, this is one of the drawings required of the patient. It is a cross with arms of equal length and size. The patient is told not to lift the pencil while making the drawing. A modification of the Reitan-Indiana has the patient copy the cross twice and their performance is judged according to the spatial relationship.
The dynamometer measures this.
What is grip strength? This is a measure of strength of the hand or grip. It is typically measured in kilograms and is part of the Halsted-Reitan battery.
Grooved Pegboard or Grooved Pegs
A test of manual dexterity, fine motor coordination and speed. The holes for the pegs are shaped like keyholes for skeleton keys, and using one hand at a time, the patient must pick up the pegs, one at a time and fill in the holes by moving across the board. The holes vary in their orientation and the pegs must be turned in order to get them into the hole.
GSR
What is Galvanic Skin Response?
GSW
What is Gun Shot Wound?
A gastronomy tube is usually referred to as this.
a G-tube
Guillain-Barre' syndrome
parasthesias in the distal extremities and leg weakness associated with an autoimmune disorder caused by disease in the peripheral myelin. It is the single most common disorder of demyelination within the peripheral nervous system.
The convolutions of the cortex on the surface of the brain.
Remember, gyrus not gyros. One is a convolution, the other a tasty Greek sandwich and not at all related.
The Graham-Kendall Memory for Designs Test
A test of visual memory (short-term, there is no delayed recall) or perhaps visual attention. 15 items of varying difficulty/complexity are shown one at a time. The subject gets only 5 seconds to view the picture and then must reproduce the design from memory.
The rules of language (phonology, syntax, semantics, and morphology) are called what?
Grammar
A generalized tonic-clonic seizure used to be called...
What is a grand mal seizure?
The written representation of a sound or phoneme is called...
a grapheme.
Sir Henry Head first described the ability to recognize/identify numbers or letters as they are traced on the skin's surface.
What is graphesthesia?
This is a frontal release sign associated with diffuse injury to the frontal lobes.
The grasp reflex is a movement to grasp the object being moved across the palm or the length of the fingers despite being told not to do so. The patient has no ability to inhibit the response. Associated more with diffuse damage than with focal injury.
The Gray Oral Reading Tests.
Currently in its fourth edition, this is a test of reading accuracy, reading speed and reading comprehension. The passages increase in the level of difficulty as one moves through the test. Two forms are available.
The greek cross
Used in the Reitan-Indiana Aphasia Screening test, this is one of the drawings required of the patient. It is a cross with arms of equal length and size. The patient is told not to lift the pencil while making the drawing. A modification of the Reitan-Indiana has the patient copy the cross twice and their performance is judged according to the spatial relationship.
The dynamometer measures this.
What is grip strength? This is a measure of strength of the hand or grip. It is typically measured in kilograms and is part of the Halsted-Reitan battery.
Grooved Pegboard or Grooved Pegs
A test of manual dexterity, fine motor coordination and speed. The holes for the pegs are shaped like keyholes for skeleton keys, and using one hand at a time, the patient must pick up the pegs, one at a time and fill in the holes by moving across the board. The holes vary in their orientation and the pegs must be turned in order to get them into the hole.
GSR
What is Galvanic Skin Response?
GSW
What is Gun Shot Wound?
A gastronomy tube is usually referred to as this.
a G-tube
Guillain-Barre' syndrome
parasthesias in the distal extremities and leg weakness associated with an autoimmune disorder caused by disease in the peripheral myelin. It is the single most common disorder of demyelination within the peripheral nervous system.
The convolutions of the cortex on the surface of the brain.
Remember, gyrus not gyros. One is a convolution, the other a tasty Greek sandwich and not at all related.