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59 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are Elysia chlorotica (marine slug)?
Solar powered slug!
What alga do Elysia chlorotica steal from?
They steal plastids from Vaucheria litorea;yellow green alga, keeping only chloroplasts
What do Elysia chlorotica do with stolen chloroplasts?
They incorporate them into their own tissue for photosynthesis
To keep photosynthesis going what must Elysia chlorotica have?
Some specific DNA (from alga, horizontal gene transfer)
With what algae do corals have a symbiotic relationship with?
Dinoflagellates
What is the criteria for classification of algal groups?
Molecular genetic similarity
Biochemical and structural features
What are the four main components of biochemical and structural features for the criteria for classification of algal groups?
1. Main pigments
2. Storage products
3. Cell wall components
4. # of flagella, their morphology and position
What are some main pigments of algal groups?
chlorophylls, phycobilins, carotinoids, fucoxanthins
What are storage products of algal groups?
starch, fats, oils, sugars
What are cell wall components of algal groups?
cellulose, hemi-cellulose, silica
What number of flagella can algal groups have?
0,1,2,4
Which pigment does all photosynthetic eukaryotes and cyanobacteria use for photosynthesis?
chlorophyll a
What is chlorophyll a?
It is the molecule that is energized by light during photosynthesis and which can pass an energized electron on to an acceptor molecule.
How many rings are around the magnesium atom in chlorophyll a?
5
What atom do the five rings in chlorophyll a surround?
magnesium atom
What does the long, hydrophobic tail of chlorophyll a do?
It ancors the molecule to specific hydrophobic proteins of the thylakoid membrane.
Is chlorophyll a soluble in water?
No
Describe the structure of chlorophyll a.
5 rings around a magnesium atom with a long hydrophobic tail.
What are the accessory pigments?
chlorophylls b and c, carotenoids, phycobilins
What do the accessory pigments do?
They capture light energy but must pass it to chlorophyll a
What is the primary photosynthetic pigment in all algae?
chlorophyll a
How do you convert chlorophyll a to b?
substitution of a -CHO for a -CH3 side group
Where is chlorophyll b found?
In green algae, euglenoids and a few cyanobacteria
What is the most notable change in chlorophyll c compared to a and b?
Loss of hydrophobic tail
Where is chlorophyll c found?
Brown algae, diatoms, golden algae, dinoflagellates, and haptophytes
List the pigments from hydrophobic to hydrophilic
Chlorophyll a,b, c
Caroteniods absorb what colour light?
blue and blue-green light
What tint are carotenoids?
yellow, orange and brown
What do carotenoids help protect?
The photosystems from excess light
What do carotenoids take over where chlorophylls can not do on their own.
They broaden the absorbtion spectrum beyond that provided by chlorophylls alone.
What is the structure of carotenoids?
hydrophobic, highly conjugated chains, largely modified by oxygen containing side groups
In what group of algae do phycobilin pigments occur?
In cyanobacteria, cryptophytes and red algae
Are phycobilin pigments water soluable?
yes
Where in the molecule do phycobilin pigments occur?
in pigment-protein complexes termed phycobilisomes.
What are phycobilisomes?
Pigment-protein complexes
In what part of the spectrum to phycobilin pigments absorb?
Strongly in the green portion of the spectrum
What colour do Phycobilin pigments appear as?
pink or blue-red
What does the ability to absorb green light allow blue-green and red algae to do?
To live beliow green algae and plant leaf canopies. Green algae and plants do not effectively absorb green light.
What light doesn't green algae and plants effectively absorb?
Green light
What does TLC allow us to do?
The identification of taxonomic characters and to understand their environment implications
What are karenia brevis?
Toxic dinoflagellate
What causes red tide?
Karenia brevis
What is remote sensing?
Photographs from satellites at absorption wavelength of chlorophyll
What does remote sensing help us do?
assessment of concentration (cells per volume water)
assessment of environmental threat
What are corals sensitive to?
water temperature
alkalinity (pH)
silt runoff
pollution
water nutrient load
pathogen infection
What happens when corals are stressed?
expelling of algae and bleaching
In terms of remote sensing how can you tell that corals are bleached?
The corals lack symbiotic algae and so have a different light absorbption
What kind of starch does green algae and higher plants have?
A mixture of Amylose and Amylopectin
What is stored in "regular" starch?
photosynthates
what is starch?
glucose polymer
What starch is found in red algae?
floridean starch
In what algae group is the starch Laminarin found in?
Brown
What algae groups is Stramenopiles found in?
Brown algae, golden algae and diatoms
In what algae groups is the cell wall component cellulose found in?
green and golden algae, dinoflagellates
In what algae group is cellulose embedded in algin
brown algae
In what algae group is cellulose embedded in agar
Red algae
In what algae group is Silica found in the cell wall component?
diatoms, golden algae
In what algae group is calcium carbonate found in the cell wall components?
haptophytes
what groups of algae have flagella?
Euglenids
Crysophytes
Green algae
Haptophytes