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109 Cards in this Set

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Bush Doctrine
The quest for unilateral approaches to threats to U.S. security, advocating the military attack of agressive enemies before they are able to attack the U.S. in order to prevent their own pre-emptive aggression.
Coercive diplomacy
An approach to bargaining between states engaged in a crisis in which threats or the use of limited force are made to force an adversary to reach a compromise.
Realism (Chapt 13)
An approach to world politics based on the assumption that all actors are naturally eager to compete and that they see the acquisition of weapons as a means of winning against their rivals.
Neoliberalism (Chapt 13)
Proponents of intitutional reforms in governance, law, and economics as substitutes for warfare as an instrument of coercive diplomacy.
Compellence (1945-1962)
In this period the U.S. was the undisputed superior in the nuclear balance of power and "compelled" any nation that did not act in a manner the U.S. appreciated through threats of war. Sec of State Dulles became famous for his use of brinkmanship and recklessly threatening nations with the brink of war.
Massive Retaliation
Eisenhower admin. policy doctrine for containing Soviet communism by pledging to respond to any act of aggression with the most destructive capabilities available, including nuclear weapons.
Countervalue targeting strategy
The bargaining doctrine that decleares the intention to use wmds against an enemy's most valued nonmilitary resources, such as the civilains and industries located in its cities.
Counterforce targeting strategy
targeting strategic nuclear weapons on particular military capabilities of an enemy's armed forces and arsenals.
peace enforcement
military actions undertaken to impose a peace, settlement, truce, or agreement to surrender by a warring party, or to prevent the resumption of fighting by the participants in a past war.
Mutual Detterrence (1961-1991)
The policy shift era from compellence to deterrence dependent on a second strike capability. This policy stimulated an arms race between the U.S./Soviet union. Peace rested on the mutual assured destruction (MAD) of each nation. Another body of strategic thought claimed deterrent threats would be more credible if nuclear weapons were made more usable. This era peaked with the Strategic Defense initiative (Star Wars) under the Reagan administration.
Doctrine
The guidelines a great power adopts defining the conditions under which it will use military power and armed force for political purposes.
Pax Atomica
Notion that nuclear weapons have preserved peace.
Low intensity conflict
insurgency and counterinsurgency warfare fought with inexpensive conventional weapons that falls below the threshold of full scale military combat between modern armies.
peacekeeping
external programs by intervening forces such as UN volunteers to stabilize war-torn regions, usually with only modest resources and in ways that avoid labeling an aggressor or provoking the hostility of a great power.
Military intervention
overt or covert use of force by one or more countries that cross the border of another country in order to affect the target country's gov't and policies.
Covert operations
Secret activities undertaken by a state outside its borders through clandestine means to achieve specific political or military goals with respect to another.
Selective engagement
a great power grand strategy using economic and military power to influence only important issues by striking a balance between a highly interventionist "global policeman" and an uninvolved isolationist when crises erupt in a great power's sphere of influence.
militarized disputes
confrontations short of war characterized by the reciprocated threat, deployment, mobilization, or use of force.
nonintervention norm
a fundamental international legal principle, now being challenged, that traditionally has defined interference by one state in the domestic affairs of another as illegal.
economic sanctions
the punitive use of trade or monetary measures, such as an embargo, to harm the economy of an enemy state in order to exercise influence over its policies.
boycotts
concerted efforts often organized internationally, to prevent relations such as trade with a state, to express disapproval, or to coerce acceptance of certain conditions.
Security Dilemma
The propensity of armaments amassed by one state for ostensibly defensive purposes to be perceived by others as threatening, which drive the alarmed competitors to undertake as a countermeasure a military buildup that heightens both states' insecurities.
Liberalism
A paradigm predicated on the hope that the application of reason and universal ethics to international relations can lead to a more orderly, just, and cooperative world, and that international anarchy and way can be policed by institutional reforms that empower international orgs and law.
Deterrence
A preventative strategy designed to dissuade an adversary from doing what it would otherwise prefer to do.
Self Help
Reliance only on one's state for defense since under anarchy no state can depend on others-even allies-to come to their defense if attacked.
Neotraditional realists
The "new" version of classical realist theorizing that emphasizes leaders, their perceptions of national interests, and changes in capabilities as the primary determinants of states' foreign policies, instead of the "structural" neorealist focus on the influence of the global system.
Balance of Power
The theory that peace and stability are most likely to be maintained when miltary power is distributed to prevent a single hegemon or bloc from controlling the world.
Preemptive War
A quick first-strike attack that seeks to defeat an adversary before it can attack or organize a retaliatory response.
Hegemonic Stability Theory
The arg. that a dominant state is necessary to enforce intl' cooperation, maintain intl' rules and regimes, and keep the peace.
Hegemon
A single dominant military and economic state.
Collective Security
A global or regional security regime agreed to by the freat powers setting rules for keeping peace, guided by the principle that an act of aggression by any state automatically will be met by a combines military response from the rest. The U.N. was founded on this principle as opposed to the balance of power theory. After WWII c.s was questioned as a principle, despite the fact that many that agreed to c.s. failed to carry out collective response when needed. The B.O.P came back in force until after the cold war when the theories were re-evaluated again.
Unipolar
When power concentrates in a single center of power. (Usually a state)
Bipolar
When power is distributed between two main powers.
Multipolar
When power centers among three or more great powers.
Long Cycle theory
An interpretation of world history that focuses on repeating patterns of interstate behavior, such as the outbreak of systemwide general wars at regular intervals, after long periods which other patterns (global peace) were dominant.
zero sum
The perception in a rivalry that if one side gains, the other side loses.
Power Transition
A narrowing of the ratio of military capabilities between great power rivals that may increase or decrease to increase the probability of war between them.
Balancer
Under a balance of power system, an influential global or regional great power that throws its support in decisive fashion to a defensive (usually weaker) coalition. This role was often played by Great Britain in the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries.
Demilitarization
The forced complete elimination of the military power or potential of a state, usually imposed by victors on the vanguished after a war.
Mutual Assured Destruction
A system of mutual deterrence in which both sides possess the ability to survive a first strike and launch a devastating retailiatory attack.
Realism
A paradigm based on the premise that world politics is essentially and inchangeably a struggle among self-interested states for power and position under anarchy, with each competing state pursuing its own national interests by expanding military capabilities.
End of History
Theory proposed by cabinet member Fukyama that predicted the expansion of globalization and capitalist/democracy systems in the world would lead to greater intergration and therefore cooperation and peace.
Neoliberal institutionalism
The recent theoretical effort to explain how peace and prosperity instead of war might be created through law, global governance, and liberal democracies cooperation to engineer int'l change.
Sovereignty
The legal doctrine that states have supreme authority to govern their internal affairs and manage their foreign relations with other states and IGOs.
Neutrality
The legal doctrine that provides rights and duties for states who remain nonaligned with adversaries during wartime.
Sovereign equality
The principle that states are legally entitled to equal protection under int'l law.
Military industiral complex
The term coined by Eisenhower to describe the coalition among arms manufacturers, military bureaucracies, and top govt officials, that promotes unnecessary defense expenditures for their own profit and power.
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty org)
a military alliance created in 1949 to deter a Soviet attack on western Europe that now seeks to maintain peace and promote democracy.
Imperialism
Intentional imposition of one state's power over another, traditionally through territorial conquest but more recently through economic domination, denying the victim pop's freedom to have a voice in the conquering regime's decisions.
Levels of Analysis
variables at the global, state and individual levels that explain why transnational actors behave as they do in int'l relations.
rational choice
a decision made by careful definition of the situation, weighing of goals, consideration of all alternatives, and selection of the options most likely to achieve the highest goals.
Just War doctrine
a doctrine regarding moral considerations under which war may be undertaken and how it should be fought once it begins.
Human Rights
The political rights and civil liberties recognized by the int'l community as inalienable and valid for individuals in all countries by virtue of their humanness.
States Sponsored terrorism
formal assistance, training, and arming of foreign terrorists by a state in order to achieve foreign policy and/or domestic goals.
War Crimes
Acts performed during war that int'l community defines as illegal crimeas against humanity, including atrocities committed against an enemy's p.o.w., civilians, or the states own minority pop.
Failed/Failing states
Countries whose governments have so mismanaged policy that they have lost the loyalty of their citizens and face anarchy and revolution.
low politics
The category of global issues related to the economic, social, demographic and environmental aspects of relations between govt's and people.
Peace building
Postconflict actions, predominantly diplomatic and economic, that strengthen and rebuild governmental infrastructure and institutions in order to avoid recourse to armed conflict.
Nongovernmental Orgs
Transnational orgs of private citizens maintaining consultative status with the UN; they include professional associations, foundations, mncs, and internationally active groups in different states joined together to work toward common interests.
Nationalism
The feeling of loyalty to a particular state and/or nationality or ethnic group, to the exclusion of attachement to other states, universal religious values, or the collective welfare of all people.
Intergovernmental orgs (IGOs)
Intl orgs whose members are states, such as the WTO.
Multinational corporations (MNCs)
Business enterprises headquartered in one state that invest and operate extensively in other states.
Ideology
A set of core philosophical principles collectively held about the ways people and govts ought to behave ethically and politically.
Self determination
The standard advocated strenously in Wilsin's "14 points" address that national and ethnic groups have a right to statehood so they can govern themselves as independent countries.
Indigenous peoples (Fourth World)
the native ethnic and cultural inhabitant pops withing countries ruled by a govt controlled by others, Known as the "Fourth World"
behavioralism
an approach to the study of intl relations that emphasizes the application of scientific methods.
Group of Eight (G-7/G-8)
The major industrialized countries including Russia, whose leaders participate in annual summit conferences to set economic, political, and military goals for the global future.
Democratic peace
The theory that, bc democratic states do not fight each other, the diffusion of democratic governance throughout world will reduce the probability of war.
liberalism
the optimistic view that b/c humans are capable of compassions, cooperation, and self-sacrifice for collective gain, it is possible for world politics to progress beyond narrow competition and war.
national security
a country's psychological freedom from fears that the state will be unable to resist threats to its survival and national values emanating from abroad or at home.
Clash of civilizations
political scientist Samuel Huntington's controversial thesis that in the 21st C. the globe's major civilizations will conflict with one another, leading to anarchy and warfare similar to that resulting from conflicts between states over the past five hundred years.
Failing states
Those governments that are in danger of losing the loyalty of their citizens, who are rebelling against corruption and administrative failure and in the process tearing the country into separate political parts.
Displaced people
People involuntarily uprooted from their homes and forced either to flee outside their state or to seek sanctuary within their own countries.
nonintervention norm
A fundamental international legal principle, now being challenged, that traditionally has defined interference by one state in the domestic affairs of another as illegal.
Ethnic cleansing
The extermination of an ethnic minority group by a state, in violation of international law.
Neotraditional Realism
A body of recent realist theorizing that departs from neorealism by stressing foreign policy more than international structure and that focuses on the internal influences on states' external behavior instead of the global determinants of states' foreign behavior.
neoliberalism
A perspective that accounts for the way int'l institutions promote global change, cooperation, peace, and prosperity through collective reform approaches.
high politics
geostrategic issues of national and international security that pertain to matters of war and peace.
noncombatants
Those not engaged in fighting during wartime such as teachers and children, who, like soldiers, are often exposed to harm.
International Regime
The set of rules, norms and decision making procedures that coordinates state behavior within a given issue area.
Irredentism
Efforts by an ethnonational or religious group to regain control of territory by force so that existing state boundries will no longer separate the group.
Asylum
The provision of sanctuary to safegaurd refugees escaping from the threat of persecution in the country where they hold citizenship.
Brain Drain
The exodus of the most educated people from their home country to a more prosperous foreign country where the opportunities for high incomes are better, which deprives their homeland of their ability to contribute to its economic development.
Dependency theory
a perspective that perceives the international economic system as responsible for the less developed Global South countries' dependence on, and exploitation by, the wealthy Global North countries.
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
An investment in a country involving a long term relationship and control of an enterprise by nonresidents and including equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in balance of payments, accounts.
Group of 77
The coalition of Third World countries that sponsored the 1963 Joint Declaration of Developing Countries calling for reforms to allow greater equity in North-South trade.
Neoliberal
a perspective that accounts for the way international institutions promote global and prosperity through reforms such as the creation of free markets and acceptance of free trade.
Dualism
The existence of a rural, impoverished, and neglected sector of society alongside an urban, developing, or modernizing sector, with little interaction between the two.
Least developed of the less developed countries (LLDCs)
The most impoverished states in the global south.
Moderniztion
A view of development popular in the Global North's liberal democracies that argues that wealth is created through efficient production, free enterprise, and free trade, and that countries' relative wealth depends on tech innovation and education more than natural endowments.
Classical Liberal economic theory
A body of though based on Adam Smith's ideas about the forces of supply and demand in teh marketplace, emphasizing the benefits of minimal govt reg of the economy and trade.
neocolonialism/neoimperialism
The economic rather than military domination of foreign countries.
Mercantilism
A govt regulatory trade strategy for accumulating state wealth and power by encouraging exports and discouraging imports.
Global level of analysis
An analytical approach to world poltics that emphasizes the impact of worldwide conditions on the behavior of states, IGO's, NGO's and other intl actors.
Structural Realism
A theory associated with neorealism that emphasizes the influence of the structure of world power on the behavior of the states within it.
State level of analysis
An analytical approach to the study of world politics that emphasizes how the internal attributes of states explain their foreign policy behaviors.
Individual level of analysis
An analytical approach to the study of world politics that emphasizes the psychological and perceptual origins of the foreign policy behaviors of Int'l actors, with special attention to leaders.
Constructivist
A scholarly approach to inquiry emphasizing the importance of agents (people and groups) and the shared meanings they construct to define their identities, interests, and institutions-understandings that influence their international behavior.
devolution
States' granting of political power to minority ethnopolitical national groups and indigenous people in particular national regions under the expectation that greater autonomy will curtail their quest for independence as a new state.
Unitary Actor
A transnational actor (usually a state) assumed to by internally united, so that changes in its internal circumstances do not influence its foreign policy as much as do the decisions that actor's leaders make to cope with changes in its global environment.
Pooled Sovereignty (EU)
Legal authority granted to an IGO by its members to make collective decisions regarding specified aspects of public policy heretofore made exclusively by each sovereign govt
Mirror images
The tendency of rival groups to see each other as the exact opposite as themselves.
Kellog Brand pact
A multilateral treaty negotiated in 1928 that outlawed war as a method for settling interstate conflicts.
Bureaucratic politics model
a description of decision making that sees foreign policy choices as based on bargaining and compromises among govt agencies.
Muddling through
The tendency for leaders to make foreign policy decisions by trail and error adjustments in an attempt to cope with challenges.
Bounded rationality
The concept that decision makiers capacity to choose the best option is often constrained by human and organizational obstacles.
Cognitive dissonance
The psych tendency to deny discrepancies between one's preexisting beliefs and new info
Geopolitics
The theoretical postulate that states' foreign policies are determined by their location, natural resources, and physical environment.
Social constructivism
A liberal-realist theoretical approach that sees self interested states as the key actors in world politics; their actions are determined not by anarchy but by the ways states socially "construct" and then respond to the meanings they give to power politics, so that as their definitions change, cooperative practices can evolve.