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42 Cards in this Set

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correlational study
explores possible relationships among different things (variables); the extent to which two characteristics tend to be found together or change together; allows us to make predictions about one variable if we know the status of the other
descriptive study
describes a situation; some are primarily quantitative, while others are qualitative; allows us to draw conclusions about the current state of affairs
experimental study
a study in which the researcher somehow changes or manipulates one or more aspects of the environment (independent variable) and then measures the effect on something else (dependent variable); enables us to draw conclusions about causation
variable
may be independent or dependent
competing explanations for results in an experimental study use of educational research
to draw conclusions about causal relationships, we must eliminate other possible explanations
1st general principle of developmental theory
Development proceeds in a somewhat orderly and predictable pattern; developmental milestones that occur in predictable sequence
2nd general principle of developmental theory
Different children develop at different rates; allows us to form general expectations about the capabilities of children at a particular age level
3rd general principle of developmental theory
Periods of relatively rapid growth may appear between periods of slower growth (plateaus); development does not always proceed at a constant rate
4th general principle of developmental theory
Development is continually affected by both nature (heredity) and nurture (environment); heredity continues to control a child's growth through the process of maturation, an unfolding of genetically controlled changes as the child develops
temperament
genetic predisposition to respond in particular ways to one's physical and social environments
Piaget's essentials for cognitive development
interaction with one's physical and social environments
scheme
an organized group of similar actions or thoughts; initially, they are largely behavioral, but over time become increasingly mental and abstract
example of assimilation
dealing with an object or event in a way that is consistent with an existing scheme; a "putting things in the mouth" scheme
example of accommodation
dealing with a new event by either modifying an existing scheme or forming a new one; a 7-yr-old that realizes a salamander cannot be a snake because it has 4 legs
Piaget's 4 periods of development
1. Sensorimotor stage (birth until 2 years)
2. Preoperational stage (2 years until 6 or 7 years
3. Concrete operations (6 or 7 years until 11 or 12 years)
4. Formal operations (11 or 12 years through adulthood)
Sensorimotor stage
Children focus on what they are doing and seeing at the moment, and so their schemes are based primarily on behaviors and perceptions; symbolic thought emerges at the end of the 2nd year
Preoperational stage
Children can think about objects beyond their immediate view, but do not yet reason in logical, adultlike ways; preoperational egocentrism; lack of conservation, irreversibility; inability to reason about transformations; single classification; transductive reasoning (2 events that occur close together have cause-effect relationship
Concrete operational stage
Adultlike logic appears, but is limited to concrete reality; deductive reasoning (drawing logical inferences about something that must be true); dependence on concrete reality; inability to formulate and test multiple hypotheses; inability to separate and control variables; lack of proportional reasoning
Formal operational stage
Logical reasoning processes are applied to abstract ideas, as well as to concrete reality; ability to reason about abstract, hypothetical and contrary-to-fact ideas; formulation and testing of multiple hypotheses; separation and control of variables; proportional reasoning
conservation
realization that if nothing is taken added or taken away, amount stays the same regardless of alterations in shape or arrangement
separation and control of variables
While attempting to confirm or disconfirm a particular hypothesis, students test one variable at a time while holding all other variables constant
culture and cognitive development
theoretical perspective emphasizing the importance of society and culture for promoting cognitive development
example of zone of proximal development
the range of tasks that children cannot yet perform independently, but can perform with the help and guidance of others; reading complex prose with the help of a teacher
evidence for language learning being due to innate predisposition
most languages seem to share certain characteristics, such as similar rules for forming negatives and asking questions; all members of a particular society acquire what is more or less the same language despite widely varying childhood experiences; in some aspects of language development, there appear to be sensitive periods during which children benefit more from exposure to their first language
semantics
meanings of words and word combinations
syntax
set of rules that one uses (often unconsciously) to put words together in a sentence
generalization
meaning attached to a word is either too restricted or too broad
context
nonverbal clues about the meaning of what is said
effective ways to teach English speakers a second language
total immersion -- students hear and speak the language almost exclusively in the classroom; bilingual education, i.e., students instructed in academic subject areas in native language while simultaneously being taught to read and write in the second language
authoritative parenting
parenting style characterized by emotional warmth, high standards for behavior, explanation and consitent enforcement of rules, and inclusion of children in decisionmaking
as students grow older, how they value their achievement in terms of high expectations
Three factors influence the kinds of self-concepts that students form: previous performance; behavior of others (those who see themselves achieving at higher levels than others are apt to develop more positive self-perceptions); group membership and achievements
Erickson's theory of psychosocial development
People's views of themselves and others change significantly not only in childhood and adolescence, but throughout the lifespan
Erickson's 8 stages of psychosocial development
1. trust v. mistrust (infancy); 2. autonomy v. shame (toddler years); 3. initiative v. guilt (preschool years); 4. industry v. inferiority (elementary school years); 5. identity v. role confusion (adolescence); 6. intimacy v. isolation (young adulthood); 7. generativity v. stagnation (middle age); 8. integrity v. despair (retirement years)
origins of trust, according to Erickson
during infancy period, major development task is to learn whether or not others, especially primary caregivers, regularly satisfy basic needs of food, comfort and affection
stage at which children realize they can obtain recognition by producing things
during elementary school years (industry v. inferiority); provides many opportunities for children to achieve the recognition of teachers, parents, peers by producing things such as drawings, sentences, problem solutions
critical ages in children's development of self-esteem
late adolescence; during early adolescence, students' self-concepts and self-esteem often drop from elementary school transition to middle and high schools; positive self-concepts start to development during late adolescence
imaginary audience
belief that one is the center of attention in any social setting
Selman's work regarding stages of perspective taking
Childhood, early adolescence, late adolescence -- to truly understand and get along with people, students must be able to step into another's shoes, and look at the world from other viewpoints; as children progress through the elementary school grades, they learn to draw more sophisticated inferences about other people's mental states
Kohlberg's characterization of children's moral development
development of moral reasoning is characterized by a series of stages; each stage builds upon the foundation of earlier stages, and an individual must progress through all of them: preconventional morality (child has not yet internalized society's conventions concerning right and wrong; conventional morality (acceptance of society's conventions concerning right and wrong); and postconventional morality (behaving in accordance with self-developed, abstract principles regarding right and wrong
Kohlberg's preconventional level of moral reasoning
lack of internalized standards about what is right and wrong; making decisions based solely on what is best for oneself
how to help children develop to postconventional moral reasoning
advances in moral reasoning depend on cognitive development
Piaget's theory of cognitive development as influencing Kohlberg's theory of moral development
individuals move from one stage of moral development to another only after experiencing disequilibrium; they must realize that their existing beliefs cannot adequately address the events and dilemmas they encounter