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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Essential Teaching Skills
Organization and use of time
2. Organization (of)
a. materials
i. knowing what you’re going to need and how many
b. time
i. allocated time
1. the time you are responsible for a given group of students
ii. Intructional time
1. Time leftover after management of the class
2. Time you have to teach
iii. Engaged time
1. Time kids are actively engaged/ involved in the lesson
2. Kids who aren’t engaged cause trouble
Essential Teaching skills
1. Attitude:
a. Authorotative
i. Show high response to students
ii. High standards/ demand
1. Expect students to work hard, behave, and succeed.
b. Teacher efficacy
i. Have to believe that you can impact your students
c. Enthusiasm
Essential Teaching skills
3. Communication
a. Style
i. Passive
1. Pushovers
ii. hostile
1. leads to students rebelling
iii. assertive
1. sure of yourself, respectful
b. Emphasis
c. Precise language
Essential Teaching skills
Introductory focus: attracts student's attention and provides a framework for the lesson.
Sensory focus: pictures, models, materials displayed on the overhead/chalkboard are used to maintain attention during learning activities.
Essential Teaching skills
information learners recieve about the accuracy or appropriateness of their verbal or written responses.
It should be given as soon as possible.
Praise: most common form of teacher feedback. Used less than 5 times per class and less as they get older. Adolescents like feedback more in private.
Written feedback: because it's time consuming, feedback is often short and sketchy and not very useful.
Essential Teaching Skills
Teachers need to question to guide learners rather than deliver information.
Questioning frequency: number of questions a teacher asks during a learning activity. It increases student involvement, and that raises achievement.
Equitable distribution: where all students are called on as equally as possible.
Prompting: use when a student doesn't additionally know the answer. You ask another question to work student through the problem. Isn't always appropriate.
Wait-time: after asking a question the teacher should wait 3-5 seconds. it is often too short.
Essential Teaching Skills
Review and Closure
Review: a summary that links what the students have already learned to what they are going to learn in the next activity. Provide students with examples during the review increases its effectiveness and provides links in the long-term memory.
Closure: form of review at the the end of the lesson. Helps the students organize the material into meaningful schema. It pulls the different aspects together and signals the end of a lesson.
Equilibrium vs. Disequilibrium
1. Equillibrium
a. Students understanding what is going on.
2. Disequillibrium
a. Students not understanding what is going on. Teaching students they don’t know everything, and need to understand more things
b. Assimiltion
i. Learn more based on what you already know.
ii. Sometimes it works, however not always optimally.
iii. Tend to try this often because we’re lazy
c. assimilation
i. Learning a new way of doing something/thinking
b. Assimiltion
i. Learn more based on what you already know.
ii. Sometimes it works, however not always optimally.
iii. Tend to try this often because we’re lazy
vi. Learning a new way of doing something/thinking
1. Response
a. Do they listen to what the child says?
b. They’re respectful of the child
c. Warm and caring
2. Demand
a. Do you have standards that you expect the child to meet?
i. Remembering the rules, morals, paying attention
b. expect a lot out of their students
4. Authoritarian
a. Low in response and high in demand
b. EX: “do this but I don’t care what you think.”
i. Kids will be unmotivated, withdrawn: will stop asking for help because teachers wont respond, resentment, inner anger (esp. in adolecents), frustration, fear, anxious (worry about disappointing the adult).
ii. Kids who can do well in the area or subject won’t be phased by the authoritarian teacher
3. Authoratative
a. High in response and high in demand
b. Motivation, competent, happy, well-adjusted, willing to try new things (risk-takers) do it because they are encouraged by the teacher, but know that they will be respected and cared for even if they “fail.” People care if they fail, they want them to succeed, so they will help them. PERSISTENT
5. Permissive
b. High in response and low in demand
c. Low standards, and are nice to everybody
i. Students figure out how to take advantage, less motivated, happy (like the teacher, good emotional response), little self-control, impulsive, immature, not mean and hostile, but they do act out.
6. uninvolved
a. low in response and low in demand
b. resentment, uninvolved, , hostile, rebellious, overt anger, low motivation
Preoperational stage (2-7)
Rapid increase in language ability with overgeneralized language.
Symbolic thought
Dominated by perception
Concrete operational (7-11)
Operates logically with concrete materials.
Classifies serial orders
EX: concludes that two objects on a "balanced" balance have the same mass even though one is larger than the other.
Formal Operational (11-Adult)
Solves abstract and hypothetical problems.
Thinks in combinations
Main concepts of theory
Intimacy- not good to be intimate with every human being you meet
Isolation- not good to be completely isolated either (not letting anyone know who you are)
• Wherever you are on the “line” is developed in your 20’s. by your thirty’s you pretty much are where you are unless something tragic happens.
Trust vs. Mistrust
1. Trust vs. mistrust (1st year and ½ of life)
Trust Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Doubt
2. Autonomy vs. doubt (“Can I do things by myself?”) (1-3 years)
autonomy Doubt
Initiative vs. guilt
3. Initiative vs. Guilt (acting on your own ideas) (3-6yrs)
initiative Guilt
let the students make choices to come up with their own ideas
As teachers be open to student’s alternative ideas. However, judge their ideas, don’t always have to allow the
Industry vs. Inferiority
4. Industry vs. Inferiority (achieving things through their own work, does the child see themselves achieving through their own effort) (6-12 yrs)
Industry Inferiority
People are expecting more out of them, and can they do it. People who feel competence in this age group are more successful in life.
If you’re always striving for success and pleasing everybody you’re closer to the industry end.
If you don’t try things unless you’re sure you will succeed, you’re be toward the inferiority end.
*PERFORMANCE GOALS- you want to be the best of all.
*MASTERY GOALS- you want to do things better than the last time you did them. Improve your own performance
Identity vs. Role confusion
5. Identity vs. role confusion (12-18 yrs)
Identity Role confusion
Making independent decisions about who they are and what they want to do.
Identity foreclosure
1. Identity foreclosure- “I’m going to dress like my friends, and be the same religion as my parents.” No individual thinking about who they are. Mirror image of their parents and friends without thinking/making your own decisions
Identity diffusion
2. Identity diffusion- people who are different every time you see them. Change their beliefs depending on who they’re with. Don’t know exactly who they are. Reflecting other people.
Identity Moratorium
3. Identity moratorium- people who are in the process of thinking who they want to be and trying out roles, but it is still a tentative basis. They’re trying things to see if they fit for them. They are THINKING/CONSIDERING things.
4. Identity achievement- know who you want to be. What your values are and what is important to you.
**not all kids go through all of the 4 stages ideally you will reach identity achievement.
Self concept and Ideal self
Help kids achieve so that they feel better about themselves.
Self concept- how you describe yourself.
^ ^
Ideal self- what you would absolutely want to be if you could change yourself.

**The closer your self concept and your ideal self are, the better you feel about yourself.
Traditional Intellegence
1. Traditional Intelligence
a. The ability to deal with abstraction
i. Doing things in your head. Ex: counting, writing, ideas.
ii. Fixing furnaces seen as less abstract and therefore those people are less smart (in this view)
b. Speed of learning
c. Academic problem solving
Gardener's theory
2. Gardner: Multiple Intelligences (8)
a. Linguistic
i. How well can you read write, and speak
b. Mathematical/logical
i. How well can you think
c. Body Kinesthetic
i. Anything that requires muscle control
d. Interpersonal
i. The ability to solve disputes, leadership responsibilities.
e. Intrapersonal
i. People who understand themselves
f. Spatial
i. Understanding blueprints, where things belong/are in “space”
g. Musical
i. pitch, tone melody
h. Naturalistic
i. How nature works together
ii. Plants, water systems
• Gardener thinks that the first two are the only ones that are truly stressed in school. Teachers need to recognize that there are other strengths than just linguistic and mathematical/logical.
Sternberg's Theory
Sternberg: Triarchic Theory
a. Analytic Intelligence
a. Metacognition- a persons understanding of their own learning style. People learn differently.
i. A better way to get along with people and coworkers is to understand how you learn and how to function optimally.
ii. Is nearly the same as the traditional model
b. Creative Intelligence- experiential. How do people create new ways to deal with new situations?
a. New way of thinking and behaving.
b. People who can go into new situations and figure out how to cope with it quickly are more intelligent than those who can not.
c. Practical intelligence- dealing with the daily things of life
a. Being able to fix things
b. Contextual- how well do people deal with their environment. They can figure out how to reach their goals in the environment that they’re in.
i. Are they able to succeed in their environment (context)?
ii. Can you meet your goals in an “unfriendly” environment?
iii. You must know what a person’s goals are to know if they have practical intelligence
Socioeconomic Status
Socioeconomic status (SES)- defined by parents income and/or education
a. largest number of poor families are white, generally rural.
b. Race doesn’t really make a difference, except in the case of Asians.
c. Low socioeconomic status:
a. Lack of opportunities
b. Added responsibilities
i. Childcare
ii. Jobs to add to the families income, not their own.
d. Lack of parental help
a. Might work too much to be around to help
b. Might not be educated enough to help their kids. (illiteracy)
c. Lack of motivation due to their environment
d. Lack of positive role models.
i. Mentor programs help.
e. lack of resources (the stuff you need for school)
f. Low aspirations
a. Can’t afford college
g. Peer pressures
h. issues of nutrition and health
a. can’t afford food or medical care
b. adds to bad concentration
i. Low socioeconomic income kids are stressed
a. For parents and students
b. Families move around because they can’t make payments, divorce, etc.
j. Parents don’t know how to advocate for their children. They don’t know “the system”
a. Parents don’t tend to “push” for their kids.
Cultural Ethnicity
b. Race doesn’t really make a difference, except in the case of Asians
At Risk Students
c. “at-risk” students = students who won’t graduate. Either failing or dropping out. Implications for the rest of their lives; income, employment.
a. Resilience: the ability to succeed in spite of risk factors. Risk factors= Gender, Ethnicity, SES, intelligence.
At Risk Students
School and teacher factors
d. School factors
a. KIPP schools- successful with helping at risk students. They are on call to help kids. Give out cell phone numbers so that they have support. Class on Saturdays and 10 hour school days.
b. Schools are funded by local gov’t (property taxes)
i. Where there is wealthier people there are better schools. When there are poorer people the schools are poorer.
c. need decent facilities
d. safety
e. activities make kids feel like part of the school, and motivated.
f. Communication with the parents.
e. Teacher factors
a. High impact teachers.
i. Deal with children that are at risk and help them succeed anyways.
1. Support and availability.
a. Willing to meet after school and give extra help.
b. High demand- authoritative believe in your students to motivate them.
c. Compassion/caring
i. Must show that you care or the kids won’t do well.
d. personalization
i. helping them make a connection to the material.
e. Help them develop possible goals.
f. Maintain a safe environment
i. Make sure students don’t feel incompetant.
ii. Feel like they can talk and people won’t make fun of them if they do make a mistake.
Exceptionalities: when a child needs adaptations to learn.
Disabilities is used over handicapped. Disability is a characteristic to a person.
A handicap is a condition that is created by an environment. EX: no wide doorways for a kid in a wheelchair is a handicap. As a teacher you must remove as many handicaps/disadvantages as possible. You create a classroom in which the student can work.
Learning Disabilities
Learning disabilities:
a. most common disabilities
a. Learning disabilities
b. Autism
c. Mental retardation-decreasing
d. Speech problems.
I.D.E.A= International Debate Education Association
a. Before this was in place children with disabilities would be refused education in public schools.
b. Parents with children with disabilities demanded education. The states lost a lot of lawsuits, and then the laws for children with disabilities were passed.
c. Free and appropriate public education (FAPE)
a. It is up to the schools to determine what is right for that child. Parents could appeal if they thought that it wasn’t sufficient
b. Due process represent the parental rights. Parents have the right to be present at any meeting that is pertaining to their child. You can’t assess a child without parental notification. It also represents a child’s rights.
c. Non-discriminatory assessment. Must use multiple tests. No just IQ tests, must use something else as well. Must use behavioral observations. Tests should be in the child’s native language, if possible. Must be licensed to give assessments.
d. I.E.P. = individualized education plan. A one or two page paper document summarizing the child’s situation and goals they should achieve. The I.E.P is written by a team including the child’s teachers, the person who wrote the evaluation, and the parents. If the child is old enough, they can be part of the team. Parent permission is advised, but if they disagree the I.E.P. can still go through. Originally, the I.E.P was supposed to be written every year, but now it must be written every three year.
e. Least restrictive environment (L.R.E)- led to the policy of inclusion. Child must be placed in the most normal school environment that will meet their needs. The least restrictive environment. What is fair is not always what is equal.
C. No child Left Behind- all students must take regents/standardized tests. Schools are only allowed to exempt 1% of their students from state tests.
D. Teacher’s Role- part of the process of identifying children that might have exceptionalities. If you see a child struggling, it is your duty to have the child assessed. First step is to talk to the parents to get approval to assess. You will file a referral to the school to assess the child. You will be working with the child and you will be forced to adapt the instruction of your class
a. Format adaptation- you teach the same material but use a different format. Blind kinds might get books on tape.
b. Content adaptation- you have to change the content because students will not be able to learn the content.
Educational Disabilities
A. Internalizing disorders- you can’t tell that they exist. They are within the child. Examples include depression and anxiety. These increase as kids get older.
i. Depression is the number one reason for suicide. If you were depressed as a child you are more likely to be suicidal. Symptoms include low energy, quietness, passive, withdrawnness, etc. Depression gets missed a lot. Intervention is very important because children who are depressed are at a much higher risk of suicide. Causes
B. Externalizing disorders- Outside of the student. They generally don’t go away. Examples include ADHA, ADD, autism
C. Autistic spectrum disorders.
i. Autism- people with autism don’t often talk, many are amute. They repeat animal sounds, jingles to cartoons, etc. People with this don’t progress usually. 90% of these people will not be able to live on their own ever. Many of these kids don’t have social interaction. They avoid eye contact. They don’t share pleasurable things with people (EX they don’t show mom or dad cool toys, etc.) They have repetitive behavior. Mannerisms; hand flapping, finger flicking, head banging. They have an extreme need for consistency. Not generally violent, but they will throw tantrums. They will through things, kick, etc. Don’t know if these kids have a high or low cognitive ability, because of the lack of communication. Need help to get ready, eat, etc.
ii. Asperger’s Disorder- people with this can progress. Lack of speech, or attempts to speak. If they speak they do so strangely. They do have language skills though. They can take care of themselves. Often times they don’t speak to communicate. Very intelligent. They have a very focused interest in something, and their fascination can change with age. They will find out everything there is to find out about that issue. They will tell everybody about what they know. They don’t pick up social cues. Sometimes the focus can be beneficial. Want to have friends, but they don’t know how to go about it. They are physically clumsy. They are loners, and self-isolated, not because they want to be, but they don’t know how to interact. They want a routine, organized.
ADHD Combined type
iii. ADHD combined type- Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder- Hyperactivity/impulsivity/distractability. Always moving, even when they sleep. They talk a lot, and at inappropriate times. They act impulsively. Most show the ADHD.
ADHD attention deficit type
iv. ADHD attention deficit type (ADD)- attention deficit. Minority of people has this type. Show distractibility. Many of these are medicated with a stimulant to calm you down psychologically. ADHD kids act like they’re drunk all the time. The behavior functions don’t function. They give them stimulants to make the behavioral parts or the brain work better. Behavioral-cognative intervention- hard to do, adults have to be consistant and in succinct for it to work. Can out grow ADHA
1. Kohlberg: moral development
a. Understanding how to decide between right and wrong.
b. Heavily influenced by piaget
c. Psychologist at Harvard in 1980’s
d. Believed that children at different ages think differently
a. Preconventional Thinking (up to 9-10 yrs)
i. Connects to preoperational
ii. Children decide between right or worng based on the consequence of the situation
iii. “what’s in it for me?” stage
iv. problematic students in school
b. conventional stage (Up to 17-18 yrs old)
i. connects to concrete operational
ii. “how would the people who care about me feel?”
iii. determine right from wrong by pleasing the ones they care about
iv. rules are very important
v. decide WHICH rules matter
vi. Conformity is important
1. Conformity to the group they want to be a part of
post conventional
c. Post conventional (From 17-18 years)
i. Make decisions based on others and themselves
ii. Social contract level recognizing that they’re part of a society
iii. Reasoning is based on how their opinion will influence others
Teacher roles
3. Part of your work as a teacher is helping students make the right decision.
a. Depending on what level the student is at determines how you as a teacher should motivate your students.
i. Have to find out what motivates each students individually
ii. Can’t work with students at a higher level of thinking than where they are
iii. Can go lower
iv. Understanding where students are can help you reason with them and understand their thinking
b. many cultures want people to think conventionally
i. want you to do what the rules say you’re supposed to do
c. most of Kohlberg’s research was based on males
i. Carl Gilligan disagreed
1. Women and girls are different
2. More selfless
3. Often influenced by others
d. Kids are difficult to teach right from wrong because there’s a lot of influence on winning and being the best
i. Focuses on preconventional/conventional
ii. A lot of people never make it to post conventional stage
iii. Hard to teach this
1. Learned by observing others act imorrally
2. Experience
3. Can’t lecture students about morals- they have to learn them on their own.
Sociocultural theory of development
emphasizes the crucial influence of social interactions and language, embedded within a cultural context, on cognitive development
social interaction and development
learning and development are directly arised through social interactions.
Language and development
gives learners access to knowledge that others already have.
Provides learners with cognitive tools that allow them to think about the world and solve problems.
gives people the means for regulating and reflecting on our own thinking.
Culture and development
provides the context in which development occurs.
the language of a culture becomes a cognitive "tool kit' that kids use to conduct their interactions and make sence of the world.
Relationship between learning and development
learning occurs when people aquire specific understanding or develop distinct abilitis, and development progresses when understanding or skills are incorporated into a larger, more complex context.
Zone of Proximal Development
When a child can benefit from the experience of interacting with a more knowledgeable person, they are working in their zone of proximity.
Distance between the actual development level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaberation with more capable peers.
Scaffolding in teaching
assistance that helps children complete tasks they cannot complete independently.
EX: kids learning to walk and their parents walking behind them and holding their hands. As they gain confidence the parents will move to one hand and then no hands to help.