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112 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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What is a serial bottleneck?
not being able to process two things at once. ie adding and multiplying two number at the same time
early selection and late selection theories about when this happens
Attenuation theory?
the idea that a secondary message would be weakened but not filtered out entirely as it would in the filter theory
think dichotic listening tast
What does the binding problem refer to?
question of how the brain puts together certain things in the visual field
What does the parietal region do? What are the differences between the two sides/ what do they specialize in?
Parietal region- attention, right- global, left- local
What is perfect time sharing?
Being able to do certain tasks at the same time, the tasks were not affected by the fact that they had to be done together
What does the prefrontal region direct?
Executive control/function
The dual code theory? what are the two components?
there are separate representation for verbal and visual info
What is a cognitive map?
imaginal representation of the world, start as route maps and develop into survey maps
egocentric representation
space from your point of view
Allocentric representation
regular map without a point of view, maintained by hippocampus
Feature integration theory
answer to binding problem:
people focus on a stimulus and search for it before synthesizing its features into a pattern
Inhibition of return
if you have already looked at one region of space, you will find it harder to return your attention to that region
Central bottleneck
bottleneck in central cognition:
can't think about two things at once
What are the two types of images? What two structures support these kinds of images?
spatial and object/object properties
spatial by- parietal structure
objects- temporal structures
Navigation causes high activation of what part of the brain?
serial order information
dkg slkj eio dpa
first anchoring
advantage for remembering first items in a series rather than any others
braddley theory of verbal working memory-
two slave systems
1. visuospatial sketch pad
2. Phonological loop-consists of mult components
a. articulatory loop-inner voice rehearsing (broca’s area)
b. phonological store- inner ear that hears the inner voice and stores the info
what structure is necessary for the creation of new memories?
frontal structures
what structure is necessary for the storage of memory?
temporal structures
visual sensory store?
iconic memory?
memory system that can effectively store all the info in a visual system, lasting for 1-5 seconds so that we can process some of it
-photographic memory, brief visual memory
auditory sensory store aka
echoic memory
What part of the brain maintains the working memory?
all the same?
Different areas of the frontal cortex maintain different types of info in the working memory
Depth of processing
rehearsal improves memory only if the material is rehearsed in a deep and meaningful way
empiricism vs nativism
all knowledge is from experience vs. born with innate knowledge
Information processing approach
analyze cognition as a set of steps in which info is processed
Sternberg paradigm
subject shown set of numbers and then asked determine whether or not certain numbers are in the set, increased time with increased numbers in set
cell that accumulates and transmits electrical activity, 100 billion in brain
gap between the terminal buttons of one neuron and the dendrites of another
a. excitatory- decrease potential difference
b. inhibitory- inhibit
action potential
sudden change when the inside of a neuron is more positive than the outside, charges down the axon
what do the basal ganglia control?
basic motor control and complex cognition
TWO things each that the right and left hemispheres control
A. Left- analytical and linguistic ability
B. Right- perception and spatial processing
blood oxygen level dependent response
what does fMRI allow us to see?
different info processing components of a complex task as solved by dif parts of the brain
visual agnosia? two kinds
inability to recognize objects, apperceptive and associative
apperceptive agnosia
unable to recognize simple shapes or draw ones they are shown
associative agnosia
unable to recognize complex objects but can draw anything
feature maps
spatial representation of the visual field in which a stimulus is broken down into many features and their locations
components of a 3-D space
texture gradient, stereopsis, and motion parallax
Gestalt principles of organization
we organize objects into units according to these principles:
template matching
images are transmitted to the brain and it attempts to compare the image to already stored patterns/templates
feature analysis
idea that recognition occurs by first recognizing basic features like lines and then their combination
Recognition by components theory
1.object broken into subobjects
2. classify category of each subobject (like recognizing a letter)
3. recognize objects as a pattern composed of pieces (like recognizing a word)
prosopagnosia? where is the problem occuring?
difficulty recognizing faces, damage to temporal lobe particularly the fusiform gyrus
minimal unit of speech that can result in a difference in the spoken message
top down processing
context guides perception, high level knowledge contributes to interpretation of low level stimulus
bottom up processing
using stimulus to process without context
phoneme restoration effect
we naturally add in missing phonemes
It was found that the *eel was on the axel...
change blindness
failure to detect a change if it occurs with another retinal disturbance (door experiment)
What is spreading activation?
spreading activation- spread of activation from items currently or recently attended
What is associative spreading?
related words facilitate the rate at which words are read, why you can’t read incoherent material as fast
What is the power law of Learning?
memory performance decreasingly improves as a function of practice
Long Term Potentiation
when the synapse activity lasts for 2-3 days and doesn't need to be reactivated
method of loci
using a fixed sequence of locations to cue the retrieval of memories
self reference effect
people have a tendency to remember more about info that refers to themselves and those they have close ties with
Power law of delay
retention functions show diminishing loss with delay
interference theory
competing with delay theory, learning additional associations to a stimulus can cause old ones to be forgotten
token distracter vs. type change
trivial change vs. important interpretation change
What's a proposition? why is it important/how used?
the smallest unit of knowledge that can stand as an assertion, used with relations and arguments to test memory of long complex sentences by breaking them up into simple ones
semantic network
hierarchical organization from broad to specific with certain characteristics as branches (think of Robin and bird and animal)
abstraction theories
having a schema of something an following it, one prototype
instance theories
idea that we store no central concept but only specific instances
encoding specificity principle
people will show better memory at test if words are tested in the same context they were encoded, dependent relationship
Korsakoff syndrome? how is it caused?
brain injury or alcoholism, causing either one or both of retrograde amnesia or anterograde
when explicit memory is blank but implicit is fully correct
explicit memory, aka, subgroups
declarative memory, episodic and semantic
implicit memory subgroups
priming, procedural, conditioning, nonassociative(habituation)
enhancement of perceptual recognition
action that will transform the problem state into another problem state, sequence solves all subgoals and thus the problem
process by which a problem solver extracts the operators used to solve one problem and maps them onto a solution for another problem
What is strange about analogy? what part of brain is needed to develop?
unique to humans, prefrontal cortex
back up avoidance
not wanting to take step back even if it is necessary to solve a problem
means end analysis
involves creating subgoals, focused on enabling blocked operators
general problem solver computer simulation program for means end analysis
set effect
biasing of a problem's solution, usually by repeat use of certain solution that won't fit (don't be blind)
Einstellung effect/mechanization of thought
- demonstrated by luchins in which 1-5 of 10 problems follow the same formula biasing the ability of the participant to not solve the rest though those are easier
expertise is not evolutionarily helpful. why?
better you are at something the less of your brain you use
3 levels of skill acquisition:
1. cognitive stage- declarative coding
2. associative stage-first errors are recognized and deleted, then skill strengthened guided by procedural memory
3. autonomous stage- perfecting
process of switching from declarative knowledge to direct application of procedural knowledge
tactical learning
learning a specific procedure for solving a problem, SAS AAA
top down problem solving
backwards problem solving, used in computer programming
experts' memory for life, their field, and patterns?
only increased memory for whatever they are an expert at, also have increased ability for memory. ie chess expert can put back pieces on board, for most any board game
deliberate learning
when learners are motivated and monitored so they are aware of the correct operators and their deviations from them
how easy is it to transfer skills?
often a failure to transfer skills to similar domains and no transfer to different domains. phone numbers to chains of words
negative transfer
when learning one thing makes you worse at learning another. very rare
LISP tutors
intelligent tutors that allow students to master things (ie programming) by monitoring components of a skill and providing feedback
componential analysis
approach to instruction beginning with an analysis of the elements to be taught
theory of identical elements
minds provide a person with a variety of narrow responses to very specific stimuli. UNTRUE: geometry label changes
successive approximation
method of controlling behavior. begin with behavior closest to one you desire and respond/reward. (wandering and sitting)
Behaviorism looks at
organisms as empty, stimulus response
electromagnetic spectrum and us
we only see the colors but there are many other rays
fuzzy logic
one thing blends into another, how humans can do things computers cant, recognize faces
Mental rotation at wash u
freshmen tested: high negative correlation bw grades on the test and grades in engineering
idea of what something looks/feels/is in the absense of the stimulus
power of the image example
Reagan and Bear (USSR)influenced the whole nation, visual image most powerful compared to other senses
Extroverts vs. Introverts
who experimented
extro- low level of basal arousal, dependent on external stimulation
Yurkes and Dobson
uses of imagery
- acquire or sharpen skills
-facilitates healing
-coping with pain (divert it)
Why are images so powerful, mentally?
the same parts of the brain are active while perceiving images or the actual experience
electromiograph, measures electricity in muscle fibers, tells when muscle neurons are firing
assimilate vs accomodate
add into our schema vs. change schema
believes there is no memory, not a storage device
we are anchored meaning:
we like to solve problems in well established ways
oomvay problem
rat with food on other side of transparent wall, sees solution unless starving
Verbal overshadowing
experiences are difficult to put into words so that when we do, things become inaccurate-alters our experience memeory
what's the difference between suppression and repression
sup-voluntary non thinking
rep-lost access to memory
Erikson theory of deliberate practice
anything can be taught: speed and fast twistch fibers, perfect pitch
beta waves
low amplitude of frequent waves, show increased blood flow
depression in your brain hemisphere
right hemisphere is working more than left, increased difference during an episode (artists)
What side of the brain does face recognition
right side, while left side does components
verbal side of brain
emotional side of brain
right sides processes and more likely to express emotion