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178 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Shared writing differs from modeling because in shared writing:
Students contribute to the writing activity
Third grade teacher Gene Brady noticed that his students had difficulty using comprehension strategies. The most effective way for this teacher to help his students would be to:
Provide minilessons and model comprehension strategies
Effective teachers use formal and informal assessment measures primarily to:
Modify their instruction and reteach when necessary
Wendy's mother taught her to knit and crochet and she knew many stitches. Because she had a great deal of experience, Wendy could now learn new stitches easily in a process of:
Assimiliation-she already had the necessary schemata
Commercially produced reading programs which typically include a student's textbook, accompanying workbook, supplemental instructional materials, and teacher's guide are known as:
Basal Reading Programs
Educators who believe that learning is the result of stimulus response actions subscribe to a theory known as:
Theorists such as Piaget explained that students' knowledge is organized into cognitive structures or files in mental filing cabinents known as:
Students usually feel comfortable, safe, and more willing to take risks when:
The classroom environment is predictable with familiar routine
John McFadden has just graduated from college and will begin his first year as a teacher in September. Experienced educators have correctly told him that teachers experience the most success when they:
Take the first two weeks of the year to establish the classroom community
The word bookcases contains how many morphemes:
Three morphemes because "book," "case," and "es"
As a new sixth grade teacher was selecting books for his classroom library, an experienced teacher correctly advised him that students within a typical classroom:
Read at a wide range of levels
Teachers can serve as a model of fluent reading by:
Reading aloud to their students
During guided reading instruction, students usually work in,
Homogenous reading groups
When he rides the schoolbus, Tommy engages in casual conversation with his friends. He uses more formal language when he gives oral reports in the classroom. Tommy's ability to use appropriate language in each situation shows his understanding of the:
Pragmatic System
In English there are approximately how many speech sounds?
44 Phonemes
Ten-year-old Julie usually enjoyed reading books in the Magic Tree House series. Today, however, the teacher required Julie to complete a worksheet as she read. To complete the worksheet, Julie was forced to read:
Efferently- to get information
Theorist such as Louise Rosenblatt have explained that students don't try to figure out the author's meaning as they read; instead, they negotiate a meaning that makes sense to them based on the words they are reading and their existing knowledge. The work of these theorists reflects:
Reader-Response Theory
A balanced literacy program integrating components such as reading, writing, oral language and content-area study is recommended for:
All students
Students usually have more opportunities to work independently, select their reading material, set personal schedules, and collaborate with classmates when they participate in:
Reading Workshops
Principal Andy Taylor has correctly advised teachers to prepare students for high-stakes testing by:
Teaching test-taking strategies through minilessons and literacy activities
Sixth grade reading teacher David Scott has been asked to help his students prepare for a high-stakes assessment. Of the following, the best way that a reading teacher could help his students prepare for a high-stakes assessment is to:
Teach students about question-answer relationships
A reading test which is composed of graded word lists, graded passages from stories and informational books, and comprehension questions is know as an:
Informal Reading Inventory (IRI)
What is a tool that is likely to help students engage in self-assessment?
A portfolio
The most effective way for teachers to monitor progress and make instructional decisions is to:
Develop a schedule for observing each student
Third grade teacher Bea Taylor writes brief notes as she observes students. Which type of notes would be most helpful in planning instruction?
Clara used context clues to determine the meanings of the words shore and seashell
High-stakes testing differs from classroom assessment in many ways. One significant way in which high-stakes testing and classroom assessment differ is that classroom assessment usually:
Provides more information for making daily instructional decisions
Students scores on high-stakes tests such as the Metropolitan Achievement Test and the ITBS can often be linked to the readability levels of the:
Lexile Framework
When correctly used, portfolios focus upon a student's:
High-stakes tests are designed to objectively measure students' ability to meet:
Grade-level standards
Six-year-old Madison selected a book, Junie B. Jones and the Stupid Smelly Bus, from the classroom library. Madison was able to read most of the words but she needed her teacher's help to fully comprehend the story. Consequently, this book fit Madison's:
Instructional Level
Systematic and meaningful collections of artifacts documenting students' literacy development over a period of time are known as:
An informal reading inventory usually contains:
Narrative and expository passages at many grade levels
Items included in portfolios are usually selected by the:
Bobby's teacher administered an informal reading inventory and found that he had a fourth grade instructional reading level and a sixth grade listening level. These scores indicate that this student should be able to:
Comprehend sixth grade level materials when they are read aloud
When a teacher administers an IRI the student:
Reads passages orally and silently
Scoring guides that are used to evaluate students' performance in reading and writing according to specfic criteria and levels of achievement are known as:
Reserachers have found that children find books easier to read when the books have:
Consistent placement of text on a page
Sixth grade teacher Helen Crump has been asked to evaluate students' writing samples. To complete this task, Miss Crump should develop a(n):
Books with repeated words and sentences, rhymes, or other familiar patterns are known as:
Predictable books
A kindergarten teacher plans to read aloud a predictable text, Mrs. Wishy-Washy. To enable all students to see the text and illustrations, the teacher should use:
A Big Book
Teacher Millie Boyd is helping her students use phonics to decode and spell words. Phonics instruction is most appropriate for students in the:
Beginning Reading and Writing Stage
Students are most likely to use conventional spelling in the:
Fluent Reading and Writing Stage
A kindergarten teacher suspects that her new student has not had the same rich exposure to books that most of his classmates have had. Which assessment tool could most likely help a teacher measure a young child's understanding of books?
Concepts About Print (CAP) by Marie Clay
A group of first grade students would enjoy the book, If You Give a Mouse a Cookie, but they are not ready to read it independently. To help the children enjoy and use the book effectively, their teacher should use the practice of:
Shared Reading- Teacher reads aloud while students follow along in their own copies.
Effective teachers have learned that it is best to teach letters of the alphabet:
Using children's own names and environmental print
Being able to name the letters of the alphabet is a good predictor of beginning reading achievement. The most likely explanation for this is that:
Children who have been actively involved in early and rich literacy activities generally know the letters
The most effective way to encourage shared reading and to involve parents in a child's literacy development is to:
Send home traveling bags of books.
Handwriting instruction should:
Begin in kindergarten to establish good habits
Young children are surrounded by words. Print such as logos on cereal boxes and signs for a favorite toy store or restaurant is known as:
Environmental Print
Tommy is transitioning from pretend reading to reading predictable books. This child is in the:
Emergent Reading Stage
Six-year-old Nicole wrote a thank-you letter to her grandmother that had all the traditional parts of a letter and showed conventional spelling. This work indicates that as a writer, the child is in the:
Fluent Stage
The goal for educators is that all students should be fluent readers and writers by:
The end of third grade
Teachers should use the time allotted for handwriting instruction primarily to:
Model letter formation and supervise the students' practice
Several kindergarten students dictated sentences about their trip to the zoo. Their teacher wrote their dictated sentences on a chart. The children were able to easily read these sentences primarily because:
The text was composed of their own language
The principal wisely suggested that by adding books, pencils, pens, and paper to kindergarten play centers, teachers could enhance their instructional value and transform them into:
Literacy play centers
During shared reading, students should be encouraged to:
Join in reading predictable refrains and rhyming words
The most effective way to help children develop concepts about the alphabet is to:
Use the children's names and environmental print to teach letters
Because fluent readers recognize many words automatically, they usually:
Devote more energy to comprehension
In English there are:
44 phonemes
Phonemic awareness instruction should be:
Integrated with other components of a balanced literacy program
The smallest units of speech are known as:
Teachers guide their students through several stages of spelling development. In the Derivational Relations Spelling Stage, instruction focuses upon:
Six-year-old Rachel proudly said she could read the word fish because it looked like the word dish. This child was using the strategy of:
Phonics instruction should be viewed as:
Part of a balanced approach that includes authentic reading and writing
Five-year-old Adam wrote the sentence, "My mom sed no". When Adam wrote sed for said, he showed that he was using:
Invented Spelling
A teacher examined the misspelled words in her students' compositions. An analysis of these misspelled words will most likely help the teacher assess her students':
Ability to apply phonics generalizations
The most powerful predictor of later reading achievement appears to be a child's:
Phonemic Awareness
The onset of the word skate is:
The belief that there should be a one-to-one correspondence between phonemes and graphemes so that each sound is consistently represented by one letter is known as:
The Alphabetic Principle
A first grade teacher conducted a lesson on word families and asked the children to write words on the chalkboard. This could best be described as a lesson in:
Phonics- because they were writing them
The best way to help children become better spellers is to
Engage them in daily reading and writing activities
When children have difficulty spelling a word, effective teachers should tell them to:
Think it out
Teachers should emphasize the phonics generalizations that have the highest degree of utility for readers. What are the most useful generalizations:
CVC pattern
CVCe pattern
Sounds of c and g
Kn and wr
To help students take responsibility for their own learning and to individualize the instructional program in spelling, a fourth grade teacher appropriately encourages his students to:
Correct their own pretests and develop their own study lists
After reviewing research, the National Reading Panel (2000) concluded that the most effective phonics programs were:
Systematic and taught in a predetermined sequence (Explicit)
Although he knew that he should use a dictionary to find correct spellings, eight-year-old Nick said that he couldn't find the words he needed for his composition. His teacher correctly told him that he should:
Predict possible spellings for the words and then check the most probable spellings in the dictionary
In the word flat the rhyme is:
When a teacher asks a student to "Say the word star without the st", that teacher is primarily monitoring the student's:
Phonemic Awareness
Six-year-old Bill said he could read the word will because it looked like his name. Bill used the strategy of:
When students explore an idea by writing rapidly without stopping, they are participating in:
The ability to read silently for increasingly longer periods of time is known as reading:
In the word spelled, ed is an example of a:
Bound morpheme
To become a fluent reader, a student must:
Automatically recognize high-frequency words
Students must develop a large stock of words that they recognize automatically because it is impossible for them to analyze every word that they encounter while reading. These recognizable words are known as:
Sight Words
One of the best ways to help students develop reading fluency is to use:
Reader's Theater
One of the most effective ways for a teacher to help his students spell high-frequency words correctly would be to:
Post high-frequency words on a classroom word wall
Every syllable must have at least:
One vowel
Word walls are appropriate:
At any grade level
Most children should become fluent writers by:
The end of third grade
To read fluently students need to read at least:
100 wpm
Words such as for, the, and with which occur frequently but carry little meaning are known as
Function words
The ability to orally read sentences expressively, with appropriate phrasing and intonation, is known as:
A teacher read a passage. The students repeated each phrase or sentence after the teacher read it. This class was participating in:
Echo reading
The best way to help children become fluent writers is to ask them to:
Write sentences to express their ideas
Research suggests that students become more fluent readers when they are taught to:
Chunk parts of sentences into meaningful units as they read
A first grade teacher introduced the word cat on Monday. On Tuesday, the teacher could help her students read the words bat, flat, and rat, by breaking those words into:
Onsets and rhymes
One of the best ways for teachers to monitor students' spelling of high- frequency words is to:
Analyze children's writing samples
When introducing new words, teachers should:
Present the words in context so that students can attach meaning
Effective teachers use minilessons to teach students about specific words, These minilessons:
Can be provided before or after students read the text
Research suggests that for students in grades 3 and up, the activity which leads to the greatest growth in vocabulary is:
A third grade teacher taught a lesson using pairs of words such as dull and sharp, hot and cold, and easy and hard. This lesson focused upon:
The expression quiet as a mouse is an example of a:
The best way to teach students to use context clues is to use:
After visiting the library, a fourth grade teacher announced that the students would have time to read independently. She wisely told them that if they encountered a word they didn't recognize, their first step should be to:
Reread the sentence containing the word
To help his students revise their writing and engage in word-study activities, an effective teacher has decided to teach his students to use:
A dictionary and thesarus
Because a group of third grade students have difficulty using dictionaries to find the definitions they need, their teacher should:
Model techniques for reading and using dictionary entries
The term which refers to the history of a word is:
When eight-year-old Eli encountered a word that he didn't know, he used the surrounding words and sentences to determine its meaning. In that situation, Eli used:
Context clues
The principal correctly told a newly hired teacher that she could most effectively expand her students' knowledge of words by:
Providing daily opportunities for students to read books independently
Research suggests what about vocabularies of students?
Students with larger vocabularies tend to be more capable readers
When the words subway and submarine appeared in a text, the teacher helped the children break the words apart. They then examined other words that began with sub. These children participated in a:
Morphemic analysis
As she was reading with her teacher, six-year-old Megan encountered a word she didn't recognize. Her teacher correctly said that if an unknown word is not essential to the meaning of the text, Megan should:
Skip the word and continue reading
Expressions which must be translated figuratively such as "raining cats and dogs", "chip off the old block", and "skeleton in the closet" are known as:
A third grade teacher would like to help struggling readers enlarge their vocabularies and motivate them to read. He can accomplish this goal most effectively by:
Reading aloud to the class
A teacher has been encouraging her students to enliven their writing by using words that have nearly the same meaning as the tired words they have been using. This teacher should give a lesson in using:
While reading about the Olympic Games, a fourth grade class made a list of sports related words and then made a grid to classify the words according to their distinguishing characteristics. Those students participated in a(n):
Semantic Feature Analysis
The fifth grade students in Debbie Smith's classroom enjoy using morphemic analysis and context clues to determine the meaning of unknown words. This behavior shows that these students have developed:
Word consciousness
When introducing new words, sixth grade teacher Terri Crowley alerts her students if the new words were derived from the Spanish, French, or Latin languages. Effective teachers have found that knowing a word's history helps students to:
Spell the word correctly
Questions arise as readers engage with a text. Research suggests that comprehension improves most significantly when:
Students learn to generate questions about a text
When Mai, an English Language Learner, read the sentence, "Blow out your birthday candles", she became confused because she had never had a birthday cake. A lack of background knowledge that affects comprehension can be categorized as a:
Reader Factor
A group of fifth grade students in Alaska wanted to read the novel Hoot which is set in the Florida. Because their teacher suspected that they didn't have the background knowledge necessary for comprehension, she correctly decided to:
Preteach key words to build background knowledge
When students reflect upon their thinking they are engaging in:
Capable writers usually:
Vary their writing to fit their purposes and audiences
Capable readers usually:
Creat mental images as they read
To monitor comprehension, a teacher asked his students to supply missing words in the following passage:
Today is Kyle's birthday.
His father will bake a ________.
Kyle's friends will come to his ________.
That type of assessment is known as a(n):
Cloze procedure
Comprehension is a complicated process which begins:
During prereading as students activate background knowledge
Research suggests that students' motivation to read increases when:
The classroom has a collaborative atmosphere
As she was reading the novel Charlotte's Web, Helen thought about the farm on which she lived and the baby pig she received on her birthday. In this situation, Helen made a:
Text-to-self connection
What is one way to best help students summarize a text is a(n):
Graphic organizer
Many informal reading inventories (IRIs) have been published to help teachers assess literacy progress. Most IRIs include:
Graded narrative and informational passages
Comprehension depends on the 2 factors of:
The reader and the text
Fluent readers tend to have better comprehension primarily because they:
Don't have to stop reading to decode words
A teacher wants to help his students categorize questions and ask higher-level questions. To achieve this goal, the teacher should introduce the strategy known as:
Before they read a new text, fourth grade teacher Harry Clifton helps his students focus their attention and remember important details by:
Helping them set a purpose for reading
Teachers can help their students become more fluent readers by providing:
Many opportunities for repeated readings
New teacher Katrina Smith said that her students didn't seem to form inferences as they read. Her principal correctly responded that:
Teachers can use modeling to help students form inferences
What is the instructional procedure that allows readers to make the most choices?
Reading workshop
The best way to help students apply comprehension strategies is to provide time for them to:
Read interesting books at their reading level
Although ten-year-old Patty enjoys writing, her stories lack tension. When she is writing, the teacher should help Patty develop the:
When she won a medal in a gymnastics competition, twelve-year-old Alicia decided to tell her story in a poem. Poems that tell a story are:
Narrative Poems
A new teacher was introducing text structures. Veteran teachers correctly advised her that a teacher's most significant goal should be to help students:
Use what they are learning about text structures when they are reading and writing
One of the best ways to help students identify the themes of the novels they are reading is to:
Provide time for discussion in LCs
Ten-year-old Richard wrote a story about a little boy and his dog. The story seemed realistic until the dog began to sing and dance. Consequently, the story could best be classified as a(n):
A teacher would like to help her students write mysteries. The best time to teach students to write mysteries would be:
When the students are reading mystery novels
The best way to help students improve their ability to write expository texts is to:
Discuss text factors that are present in the books the students are reading
Fifth grade teacher Kathy Smyth helps the young writers in her class develop an awareness of expository text structures. Writers use expository text structures primarily because these structures:
Help readers comprehend the material
Author Carl Hiaasen has written several novels in which his knowledge and description of the Florida landscape is essential to the story's effectiveness. Settings which are essential to the story's effectiveness are known as:
Integral settings
The underlying meaning of a story is referred to as its:
Ten-year-old Belle wrote a story in which she described her characters' thought processes so vividly that the readers felt they were peeking inside the characters' minds. In this story, Belle wrote with a(n):
Omniscient Viewpoint
While teaching a social studies unit on the Revolutionary War, a fourth grade teacher sought books which would accurately describe the clothing, recreation, and culture of the period. To accomplish this goal, the school librarian wisely suggested that the teacher should select:
Historical Fiction
Fifth grade student Marie loves to gaze at the night sky and imagine planets filled with interesting people. Because of this interest, her teacher believes that Marie would enjoy reading:
Science Fiction
Children in the town of Ridley Park enjoy hearing stories about Claude, the town's first postmaster. Stories which have been passed down from generation to generation are known as:
When sixth grade teacher Wally Briggs considered using picture books with his class, the school librarian correctly advised that:
Appropriate picture books are available for every grade level
Stories usually have:
More than one theme
After reading several autobiographies, eleven-year-old Shawn decided to write about her life. Because she told the story through her own eyes and used the pronoun "I", Shawn's story was told in the:
First-person viewpoint
In the short story, Another Old Car, the central character, Mary Grady, is embarrassed to ride in her father's used car. This story could best be classified as:
Realistic Fiction
While enjoying a book of poetry a teacher reminded her students that:
Poems have unique text factors
Informational books are organized by:
Expository text structures
The child who is most likely to have difficulty learning to read is the child who has:
Difficulty developing phonemic awareness
A group of sixth grade students read independently and take computer-generated comprehension quizzes on their reading. These students are participating in a(n):
Accelerated Reader Program
When students participate in guided reading sessions, they should read texts written at their:
Instructional Reading Level
According to the program's design, Reading Recovery instruction should be delivered by:
A specially trained teacher
When his class was studying the Olympics, the teacher gathered multiple copies of related fiction and nonfiction books that varied in difficulty. This teacher compiled a:
Text set
Several fifth grade students have been having difficulty reading an assigned novel and they need teacher support to comprehend the text. Of the following, the most appropriate instructional technique to use with these students would be:
Guided Reading
Of the following, the most appropriate role for a school literacy coach is to:
Collaborate with teachers to design instruction
During Writing Workshop, it is most appropriate for students to work on projects
They've chosen themselves
Students often assume roles such as the Discussion Director or Word Wizard when the participate in:
Basal reading programs provide a wide variety of materials to support student learning. The essential component of a basal reading program is:
A student textbook or anthology
When students participate in literature focus units, the books they read are usually selected by:
The teacher
When they met in literature circles, some second grade students used inappropriate language and did not discuss the selected books. After observing this behavior, the principal the correctly advised their teacher to:
Join the literature circle to model appropriate conversation
All of the students in Al Gallo's class are reading the novel, Maniac Magee, by Jerry Spinelli. They have grand conversations about each chapter, respond in reading logs, and add important words from the chapters to the class word wall. These students are participating in a:
Literature Focus Unit
Students conduct authentic research when they:
Search for answers to their questions
Content-area textbooks should not be used as the entire social studies instructional program because these textbooks:
Typically only survey topics
A new teacher wants to use a thematic unit with her class. She should develop assessment plans for the unit:
Before starting the unit
Before her students read a textbook chapter about the Grand Canyon, the teacher introduced a set of statements and asked the students whether they thought the statements were true or false. Then they read the chapter to see if they were correct. This teacher was using a(n):
Anticipation Guide
Because a few students in Terry Ruby's class can't read their textbooks independently, their teacher should:
Allow the students to read with buddies
The principal gave new teacher Donna Rutgers a social studies textbook and correctly advised her that she should:
Supplement the textbook with other print and Internet resources
To help his students retain information as they read, a 6th grade teacher would like to teach a strategy that incorporates before, during, and after-reading components and encourages students to review material. An appropriate technique would be: