Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 variables that determine growth and change in counseling
1. counselor
2. client
3. setting
4. theoretical orientation
dream anaylsis
-dreams-royal road to the unconsious
-counselor focuses on 2 aspects:
1.manifest content(obvious meaning)
2.latent content(hidden but true meaning)
4 categories of couseling approaches
1. cognitive
2. affective
3. behavioral
4. pyschanalytic
counseling began
person to person relationship
Freud & Adler-similarities
emphasis on early experiences in childhood
free association
(birth of psychoanalysis)
used to explore unconscious minds of patients, material uncovered was interpreted and analysed.
Freud initially used
hypnosis, he was not good at it and found success depended on the relationship established during treatment
freud & adler-differences
Freud-sexuality, instict & unconscious

Adler-social life, purposeful goals & conscious experiences
Wednesday Psychological society:
met at freud's home to discuss persoanlity theory, eventually known as viennese psychoanalytis society
-most basic defense
-ego involuntarily excludes from consious any unwanted or painful thoughts, feelings, memories or impulses
Heinz Kohut- object relations thoery
-object is anything that satisfies a need
-challenge is to learn to negotiate with the world without trading fundamental needs
defense mechanism
protect a person from being overwhelmed by anxiety through adaptation to situations
-focuses on achievement of specific life enhancing tasks
-8 stages to progress through in life
-projects an unwanted emotion or characteristic to someone else
freud-human nature could be explained in terms of:
1.conscious mind-events in present
2.preconsious mind-between conscious and unconscious and contains aspects of both, hidden memories that can be remembered if person is given cues
3.unconcious mind-most powerful & least understood, instinctual, repressed &powerful forces of personality are here
reaction formation
-anxiety prodcuing thoughts, feelings or impulses are repressed & their opposites expressed
-energy away from one object to an alternative
ex.bad day at work, yell at wife
-positive form of displacement
-drive that cannot be expressed directly is channeled into constructive activities
-finds reasonable explanations for unreasonable behaviors
-person returns to an earlier stage of dev.
Adler-birth order
1.firstborn-socialized to conform, achieve, behave & please
2.secondborn- more outgoing, carefree & creative
3.middle-feel treated unfair
4.youngest-lots of attention, may become spoiled
5.only child-like oldest, lots of attention, high achievers
Freud-personality consists of 3 parts
2.Ego-mostly conscious, some uncounscious & preconscious
-not consciously acknowledging an unpleasant or traumatic event
-protects people form facing pain
analysis of resistance
resistance-not showing up, not booking appointments, being late
-counselor analysis can allow to client to gain insight into resistant behavior as well as other behaviors
-people motivated by social interest
-consious aspects of behavior, key to personality
-behavior is goal directed & purposeful
-theory name "individual psychology"
-present from birth
-pleasure principle:amoral, irrational, impulsive
-operates through drives, instincts & images (primary process)
-contains energy for life(eros) & death instincts (thanatos)
-moderates the wishes of the id & superego
-called "executive of the mind" because it keeps the id under control
-reality principle:reality being what exists
-secondary process:rational thinking
Adler- emphasis
1.striving for perfection
2.inferiority complex
3.superiority complex
-person incorporates the qualities of another
-can help a person solve problems
Adler- each person creates a style if life by age
stages of psychosexual dev.
1. oral: mouth is pleasrue zone
2. anal: withholding or eliminating feces
3. phallic: resolve sexual identities (oedipus & electra complex)
4. latency: little interest in sexuality. interest to peer avtivities & mastery in cognitive learning & physical skills
5. genital: interest in other gender
Adlerian counselors
try to assess why clients are oriented to a certain way of thinking an behaving
-moral branch of the mind
-uses mechanism called ego ideal:rewards those who follow what parents & society have taught, induces guilt to those who don't
main goal of psychoanalysis
personal adjustments, usually inducing a reorganization of internal forces within the person
role of psychoanalytic counselor
-encourage talk about whatever comes to mind, mostly childhood experiences
-client lies on couch with anaylst out of view
-encourage counselor to interpret client
-projective tests are used
-always use diagnostic labels to classify clients
goals of Adlerian counseling people develop healthy, holistic lived
2.overcome feelings or inferiority
3.cultivate social interest
-counselor helps the client understand the meaning of past and present personal events
8. push button
clients realize they hve choices about what stimuli in their lives they want to pay attention to
2. asking "the question"
"what would be different if you were well?"
5. spitting in the slient's soup
counselor points out certain behaviors to clients an thus ruins the payoff for the behavior

counselor encourages client to consider their own private logic
free association
-relax and recall early childhood memories or emotional experiences even if they seem silly or irrational
-id speaks, ego remains silent
4.acting "as if"
acting as if they are the person they want to be
key to making productive lifestyle choices
7. task setting
initially sets short range, attainable goals then long term, realistic objectives
6. catching oneself
client learns to become aware of destructive behaviors or thoughts
psychoanalysis weaknesses
1.time consuming & expensive
2.can't use for older than 50
3.claimed by psychiatry
4.concepts not easily communicated
5.deterministic-certain limitations in women were a result of gender
good things about adlerian theory
-egalitarian atmosphere
-versatile over a life span
-useful to many DSM disorders
-can be used in dirrerent cultural contexts
-client responds to a counselor as though the counselor were some significant figure in the clients past