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59 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
6. emergence of group counseling
group settings showed the powerful of groups on individuals

teching members to own persoan feelings and express them clearly
linear causality
one action is seen as the cause of another
when working with families uses absurdity:
a stmt that is half true and even silly if followed out to its conclusion
8. multicultural changes
-importance of cultural background in treating families
-inherited culture-ex.ethnicity, nationality
-acquired culture-learned habits
5. growth of child guidence movt
child guidance clinics concentrate on the treamtment & prevention of emotional disorders in children through an interdisciplinary approach
5 main approaches to marriage & couple counseling

-based on theory of object relations-addresses how relationships are developed across the generations
-objects are the significant others in one's environment
-counselor uses transference
-catharsis-(expression of pent up emotion) is a must
-goal-gain new insights into their lives and change their behaviors
strategic(brief) family counseling
-strive to resolve presenting problems and pay little attention to instilling insight
-major aspect-homework tasks
structural family counseling
2 techniques: interaction
2.reframing-helping the family see its problem from a different and more positive perspective
strategic family counseling
prescribe the problem:
place target behaviors(family fights) under the control of the counselor by making a behavior voluntary if family members comply & eliminating a behavior if family members resist the counselor's instructions
interlocking pathologies
unconscious and dysfunctional way of acting
physical or psychological avoidance
2. social cognitive theory
-stresses learning through modeling and imitation
-also called social learning
-focus-skill building in present
a facade of family harmony that covers underlying tension between family members
3. schizophrenia & families
studies conducted in the area of family dynamics & the otiology of schizophrenia
concepts to emerge were

a)double blind
a person receives 2 contradictory messages at the same time and is unable to follow both
4.emergence of marriage counseling
focus on the marriage relationship rather that just the individuals involved
c)marital schism
overt marital conflict
3. Bowen Family Systems Theory
-focus-differentiation-distinguishing one's thoughts from one's emotions and oneself from others
undifferentiated emotional togetherness
d)marital skewness
pathological marriage in which one partner dominated the other
narrative reasoning
characterized by stories, meaningfulness and liveliness
insisting on just the opposite of what one wants
4. Structural Strategic Theory
-belief that when dysfunctional symptoms occur in a marriage, they are an attempt to help couples adapt
-goal-get couples to try new behaviors because their old behaviors aren't working
Structural strategic theory uses:
giving a new perspective to a behavior
5. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
-based on: couples often become disturbed because of what they think rather than because of specific actions that occur in the relationship
Aspect of REBT
-irrational thinking-what leads to neurosis and relationship disturbance
3.prescribing the symptom
having the couple display voluntarily what they had previously manifested involuntarily, such as fighting
focus on third party
7.postwar changes
increase in divorce, women's employment outside the home & expansion of the life span...those affected by these changes brought researchers, & theorists together
all families deal with: cohesion

emotional bonding
experiential family counseling
-concern for individual & family
-belief that dysfunctional families are made up of people who are incapable of autonomy or real intimacy
structural family counseling

the informal way in which a family organizes itself and interacts
family life cycle
stages a family goes through as it evolves over the years
solution focused family counseling (milton erickson)

utilization principle
whatever the client present sin counseling is a basis and means for client solutions and change
2 ways to describe family dysfunstionality are:

family environments in which members are overly dependent on each other or are undifferentiated
4. family rules
-redundency principle-small set of predictable rules that most families operate on
-counselors help them define or expand the rules under which they operate
behavioral family counseling

work is concentrated in 3 main areas:
1.behavioral parent training
2.behavioral marriage counseling
3.treamtment of sexual dysfunctions
Satir-nonproductive roles
1.placater:agrees & tries to please
2.blamer:dominates and finds fault
3.responsible analyzer:remains emotionally detached & intellectual
4.distractor:interrupts and constantly chatters about irrelevent topics adaptability
ability to be flexible and change
5. Morphogenesis
-ability of a family to modify its functioning to meet challenging demands of internal and external factors
a)second order change-ability to make an entirely new response
b)first order change-continuing to do more of the same things that have worked previously
psychodynamic family counseling
-individual rather than social systems such as families
-goal-change the personality of family members so they can work with one another in a healthy and productive way
focus of REBT
help individuals first and marriages second
Family Counseling-usually there is a identified patient:
an individual who is seen as the cause of trouble within the family structure
structural family counseling
-counselor joins in the family in a position of leadership
-aim to get the family to change the way it operates
2. equifinality
-same origin may lead to different outcomes, same outcomes may result from different origin.
-treamtment focus-interactional family patterns rather than particular events
one person is singled out as the cause of the family's problems
solution focused therapy
miracle question
let's suppose that tonight when you were sleeping a miracle happened that solved all the problems that brought you here. How would you know it? What would be different?
family counseling emphasizes the following 6 concepts:

The family is greater than the sum of its parts
behavioral family counseling
-stress the importance of learning
-importance of family rules & skill training
-behaviors determined by consequences rather than antecendants
solution focused therapy
-belief small change will lead to big change
-enpowers client families
-flexible and good research to proove effectiveness
Narrative family counseling
-newest approach to family counseling
-based on narrative reasoning
-families encouraged to externalize problems to colve them
similarities in marriage or family counseling and individual or group counseling center on
circular causality
events are related through a series of interacting feedback loops
3. communication
-content-factual info
-relationship-how the message is to be understood
family fusion situation in which one person in pulled in two different directions by the other members of the triangle
6. homeostasis
-families tend to stay in a steady, stable state of equilibrium unless otherwise forced to change
2.general systems theory
-how interaction of the parts influences the operation of the system as a whole with problem, family effected
8 events influenced marriage & family counseling since ww2 of psychoanalysis
-psychoanalysis extended approach to include family's in the late 1940's