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97 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
behavioral genetics
study of individual differences in development of trait or disorder within a population
individual differences
Differences between people (not within)
quantitative studies
Degree of genetic and environmental influence (not looking at specific genes)
Ex of study: Height is 80% heritable, schizophrenia is 70% heritable
quantitative study
Interpret: Height is 80% heritable
80% of the reason that people in a population are different heights is that they have different genes
molecular studies
ID specific genes accounting for genetic influence
Ex of study: Dopamine receptor 2 gene related to ADHD
molecular study
segments of DNA that make proteins
DNA makes up our _____
humans have ___ pairs of chromosomes
DNA codes and regulates the production of proteins
DNA replicates itself so that traits can be passed down through relatives
gene products
DNA unzips its double helix, makes a complementary strand for each unzipped strand in...
DNA replicates itself so that traits can be passed down through relatives in...
DNA codes and regulates the production of proteins in...
Alternate forms of genes on matched pairs of chromosomes (one dominant, one recessive)
recessive disorder, both parents need to have at least one recessive allele
quantitative studies are done...
How do you determine if something shows genetic influence?
Examine patterns of relatedness (similarity) among relatives (biological and non-biological)
in family studies, examine...
rate of disorder in relatives of affected vs. unaffected individuals
if not familial, then...
...neither genes or family environment contribute
1 problem with family studies
share genes and environment
adoption studies examine...
rate of disorders in adoptee and biological and adoptive relatives
adoption studies disentangle...
...genetic from environmental influences
2 problems with adoption studies
privacy laws, expensive
twin studies derive...
...heritability estimates
Proportion of individual differences within a population that is due to genes
heritability estimate
Interpret: Body weight 80% is heritable
80% of variability in bodyweight within a population due to genes
Formula for calculating heritability estimate
2(MZ correlation – DZ correlation)
heritability estimate is _______ populations
if ________, there is a genetic effect
MZ is twice DZ
shared environment
If MZ = DZ
shared environment
shared environment examples
SES, general child rearing practices
nonshared environment
Influences unique to sibs growing up in same family
nonshared environment example
differential parenting
If MZ < 1.00
Always some type of environmental effect
Which environmental factor is more important?
shared environment is important for
Only time it would be entirely due to shared environment
rMZ = 1.0, rDZ = 1.0
additive genetic effects
nonshared environment
Use algebra and equations to simultaneously examine influence of A, C, and E
Model fitting analyses
2 problematic assumptions for twin method
Representativeness assumption, equal environments assumption
Assumption: Twins are representative of the population at large for behavioral traits and disorders
MZ twins not treated more similarly, but, if they are, increased environmental similarity doesn’t affect trait/disorder in question
equal environments
are MZ twins treated similarly?
does similar treatment of MZ twins affect behavioral similarity
Study: Twins who look more alike NOT more alike for disordered eating
Klump et al. (2000)
2 types of molecular studies
association, linkage
in association studies, examine...
frequency of alleles between individuals with and without the disorder
in linkage studies, examine...
genes/markers across genome to determine “hot spots” where susceptibility genes might lie
what is being IDed in linkage studies?
regions on chromosomes that might harbor important genes
During formation of egg/sperm, original chromosomes in pair may cross over and exchange portions of their DNA
Chances for crossover depends on _____
distance between genes
closer genes --> likelihood for crossover
less likely
farther genes --> likelihood for crossover
more likely
Genes that are close to each other are likely to be
transmitted together
Family members who have the disease are similar to each other because
the genes linked to the disorder are transmitted in both of them
how are linkage studies done in families?
Examine siblings who all have the disorder, look for evidence of linkage
places where individuals vary significantly
___% share 0 alleles
___% share 1 allele
___% share 2 alleles
Rates of EDs (includes EDNOS) in relatives of ED probands = _____ times higher than in relatives of controls
AN may share risk with _____
evidence for AN being heritable
40% of the time, if one MZ twin had AN, other twin had it too
Transmission of OCPD in families is independent of
OCPD in AN patient
klump's findings for genetic vs. enviro effects
genes- 74%, shared 0%, nonshared 26%
BN prevalence in Bulik study
if measurement error is high, what should be off?
nonshared environment
heritability of BN in bulik
In adulthood, is shared or nonshared important?
reliability of BN diagnosis (bulik)
shared genetic/environmental effects
Common set of genes and/or environmental factors influencing EDs and related phenotype
cross-twin, cross-trait corr.
Correlate EDs in one group of twins with dep in another group
twin one’s ED with twin 2’s depression
if MZ is twice as much as DZ
There is a genetic effect
the strongest prospective risk factor for EDs
Personality (particularly negative emotionality)
heritability of personality
more than 50%
Kendler was only study to find some _____
shared environmental effects
what is the exception to ED and personality being heritable
binge eating
to what extent are disordered eating and personality heritable?
more than 50%
nonshared/shared important in disordered eating and personality
_____ may be a genetic risk factor for EDs
negative emotionality
Keel et al: _______ share genetic risk factors with AN
anxiety disorders
Wade et al: overlap in _____, genetic risk factors for AN and depression
some but not all
Kendler et al: BN appears to share genetic risk with _____ and ______.
phobia, panic disorder
Kendlet: No shared genetic risk with _____, ______, or _____.
depression, GAD, alcoholism
_______ very important in childhood, drops in adol, little to no in adulthood
shared enviro
_____ steady throughout life
nonshared enviro
Shared enviro _____ in childhood, ____ in adol, _____ in adulthood
very important, drops, little to no
11 to 14: shared enviro ____, genetic _____, nonshared _____
plunges, increases a lot, decreases a little
Genes have no effect in ____, lots in _____
prepuberty, puberty
shared enviro _____ in prepuberty, _____ in puberty
relevant, not relevant
Genetic factors account for ___% of variance in pubertal twins