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113 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Decision making
involves
1. Giving consideration to a matter
2. Identifying the desired end result
3. Determining the options to getting the end result
4. Then selecting the most suitable option to achieve the desired purpose.
- Teacher decisions about issues will influence student learning
Decisions about Basic Teaching Function
1. Planning
2. Implementing
3. Assessing
Planning
involves
1. Teacher decisions about student needs
2. The most appropriate goals and objectives
3. Content to be taught
4. Instructional Strategies
5. Lesson delivery techniques
6. Instructional Media
7. Classroom Climate
8. Student Assessment
- Goal of planning is to ensure student learning
Implementing
– involves the actual enactment of the instructional plans concerning lesson delivery and assessment.
- presenting and explaining, questioning, listening, monitoring, giving feedback and demonstrating are teaching skills that support implementation
- occurs when interacting with students
Assessing
– involves determining the level of student learning
- Means to measure student learning include:
1. Paper and pencil tests
2. Portfolios
3. Work Samples
4. Projects
5. Reports
6. Journals
7. Models
8. Presentations
9. Demonstrations
10. Various other types of product and performance assessments
ESSENTIAL TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS
1. Knowledge
2. Skills
3. Dispositions
Knowledge
a. Professional Knowledge
b. Pedagogical knowledge
c. Pedagogical content knowledge
Professional Knowledge
o teaching in general
o includes knowledge about
 learning
 diversity
 technology
 professional ethics
 legal and policy issues
 pedagogy
 the roles and responsibility of the profession of teaching
Pedagogical knowledge
o The general concepts
o Theories
o Research about effective teaching
Pedagogical content knowledge
o Involves teaching methods that are unique to a particular subject or the subject or application of certain strategies in a special way for a subject
Skills
a. Teachers must possess the necessary skills to use their knowledge effectively to ensure all students are learning
Dispositions
a. Include
1. The necessary values,
2. Commitments,
3. Professional ethics, that influence
teacher behavior
b. Could be evidenced by written plans indication the use of cooperative learning groups, demonstrations, and a role-playing activity.
NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND
- Requires every teacher working in a public school to be highly qualified by the end of the 2005-2006 school years.
- Provisions:
o Highly qualified teachers
 o State Requirements
 o Demonstration of competency
o State Standards of evaluation
STANDARDS AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
A. INTASC standards
B. Principles of learning and teaching (PLT)
C. A Framework for teaching
D. National Board for Professional teaching Standards (NBPTS)
INTASC standards
Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium
o Committee of teachers, teacher educators and state officials to prepare a set standards for competent beginning teacher.
Principles of learning and teaching (PLT)
o Assesses general pedagogical knowledge concerning
a. Students as learners
b. Instruction and assessment
c. Communication techniques
d. Profession and community
C. A Framework for teaching
- Domain 1: Planning and Preparation
- Domain 2: Classroom Environment
- Domain 3: Instruction
- Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities
D. National Board for Professional teaching Standards (NBPTS)
- Teachers are committed to students and their learning
- Teachers know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to students
- Teachers are responsible for managing and monitoring student learning
- Teachers think systematically about their practice and learn from experience
- Teachers are members of learning communities
Important Aspects of a reflective decision maker
1. What to teach
2. How to teach
3. How to provide an atmosphere that supports student learning
Learning Community
classroom designed to help all students feel safe, respected, and valued in order to learn new skills
REFLECTIVE PRACTICE
a. Reflection – a way of thinking about educational matters that involves the ability to make rational choices and to assume responsibility for those choices.
b. Teachers need to be willing to analyze their own traits and behaviors in relation to the events that take place in the classroom; they need to observe and attempt to make sense of situations by checking their insights against prior experience.
Reflection
a way of thinking about educational matters that involves the ability to make rational choices and to assume responsibility for those choices.
REFLECTIVE AND A CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH TO TEACHING
- The teacher is not the dispenser of knowledge
- Teacher is facilitator of knowledge
- Constructivist classroom is student centered
- Lots of cooperative and collaborate work
Constructivist theory
individuals construct meaning and understanding through
prior knowledge and then apply this knowledge in new current situations.
In a constructivist classroom, the teacher searches for students’ understandings of concepts, and then structures learning opportunities for students to refine or revise these understandings by:
• Posing contradictions
• Presenting new information
• Asking questions
• Encouraging research
• Engaging students in inquiries designed to challenge current concepts
In a constructivist classroom:
1. Teachers seek and value their students’ points of view
2. Classroom activities challenge students’ suppositions
3. Teachers pose problems of emerging relevance
4. Teachers build lessons around primary concepts and “big” ideas
5. Teachers access student learning in the context of daily teaching
Planning for instruction
refers to decisions that are made about organizing, implementing and evaluating instruction
REASONS FOR PLANNING
1. Gain a sense of direction
2. Organize, sequence and become familiar with course content
3. Collect and prepare related instructional material, and plan to use various instructional media
4. Use a variety of strategies and activities over time
5. Incorporate techniques to motivate students
6. Take into account individual differences when selecting objectives, content, strategies, material and requirements
7. Arrange for appropriate requirements and evaluate student performance
8. Become a reflective decision maker about curriculum and instruction
9. Provide subs and members of teaching team with a specific plan to follow if you are absent.
FACTORS RELATED TO INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES
Content
Materials
Instructional strategies –
Teacher behaviors –
Structure of a lesson –
Learning environment –
Student –
Duration of a lesson – Location of a lesson –
Content
– refers to the knowledge, skill, rule, concept, or creative process that you wish students to learn
Materials
– the tangible written, physical, or visual stimuli that are used in instruction.
Instructional strategies
examples, lectures, demonstrations, questions, recitations, practice, drills, discussions, panels and debates or small groups, role playing, lab work, computer-assisted instruction
Teacher behaviors
make plans to state expectations, provide a set induction, maintain a group focus, provide smooth transitions, clearly present lesson content, provide closure and a summary, and handle other aspects of conducting a lesson
Structure of a lesson
refers to actions that take place at certain points in the class period or the lesson presentation.
Learning environment –
consider the type of learning environment you would like to create
Student
consider characteristics of particular students you have in your classroom
Duration of a lesson
make plans for the time that is available or allocated. Instructional activities tend to last from 10 to 60 minutes; depending on the age level.
Location of a lesson
the location of an activity may change based on the need for 1) space to work on a set of materials (computer lab or learning center), 2) additional new references, materials, or experiences (library, field trip), 3) a different social structure (debate, play or any activity in which students work together).
THE LINEAR RATIONAL MODEL
- sequential process based on clear goals and objectives
- Instructional planning involves sequential decisions about
o Formulation of goals
o Specifications of objectives
o Assessment of student needs relative to the stated goals and objectives
o Selection of strategies and learning activities linked to the objectives
o Evaluation of student performance
Aims
broad statements about the intent of education; often written by national or state panels, commissions, or policy-making groups; they express a philosophy of education and concepts about the social role of schools and the needs of children.
Goals
non-behavioral and provide direction for educators, but they do not specify achievement levels; often written by professional associations and state and local educational agencies to serve as guidelines for school and curriculum guides for what all students should accomplish over their entire school career.
Curriculum guide
a document that identifies the objectives and content that are to be included in a give grade level for a given subject; commonly include subject-specific course goals, a fairly detailed outline of curricular content, recommended instructional activities, an annotated bibliography, and an annotated list of films, filmstrips, videotapes, computer software, and other instructional resources; often revised every few years.
OBE – Outcomes Based Education
involves focusing and organizing all the school’s programs and efforts with an emphasis on clearly defined outcomes which all students must demonstrate upon exit from the course, program, or grade level.
Learning objectives
statements of what is hoped that students will achieve through instruction, and they are narrower in scope than subject-specific goals.
Performance objectives
written for daily lesson plans and are stated in behavioral terms to indicate what is to be observed and measured; when writing them consider the parts of the stated objective and the learning domains represented.
Seven Principals of aims
1. Health
2. Command of the fundamental processes
3. Worthy home memberships
4. Vocation
5. Citizenship
6. Worthy use of leisure time
7. Ethical Character
Course
a complete sequence of instruction that includes a major division of the subject matter
Course Planning
involves organizing and scheduling the content to be taught during the time allotted for the course, whether the time is for a year, semester, trimester or quarter.
Reasons for Course Planning
• To become familiar with the content to be taught
• To determine the sequence in which the content will be taught
• To incorporate any changes in materials, textbooks, or content that may have been made since the last time you taught a particular topic
• To develop a rough schedule of when various topics will be taught during the course
• To make additions, deletions, and adaptations to the curriculum, taking into account your own particular circumstances and the needs of your students
• To plan classroom routines
Types of Teacher Planning
• Yearly planning
• Term Planning
• Unit Planning
• Weekly Planning
• Daily Planning
Term planning
– involves the preparation of more detailed outlines of the content to be covered within a marking period or term. They are elaborations of course-planning outlines and indicate which units will be covered during that term; help you arrange for handling specific issues related to the curriculum and instruction of each unit.
Products of unit planning
a list of goals and objectives for the unit, a statement of the rationale for the unit and an outline of unit content, a written sequence of daily lessons with appropriate instructional activities, materials needed for instruction (handouts, study guides) will be prepared and gathered, materials needed for student evaluation (worksheets, tests), the material you need for yourself for instruction (transparencies, posters, notes).
Weekly planning
Laying out the week’s activities within the framework of the daily schedule throughout the week.
A plan book
used to display weekly plans in a brief way, commonly on a two-page grid format
A lesson
subdivision of a unit, usually taught in a single class period or, on occasion, two or three successive periods
How detailed should a plan be?
• Objectives/standards – What will your students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson? Which national or state content standards are targeted in this lesson?
• Instructional materials and resources – What materials, texts, manipulative, or resources will you need for this lesson? What technological resources will you need?
• Learner factors – How does this lesson accommodate different developmental levels of students? How does this lesson accommodate individual differences in approaches to learning, create connections between subject matter and student experiences, and/or include provisions for students with particular learning differences or needs?
• Environment factors – What student groups will be used? What changes will you need to make in the classroom arrangement due to the instructional strategy that you are using.
• Assessment activities – How will you determine what the students know and are able to do during and as a result of the lesson? Is there a direct relationship with the objectives and the content standards that students are asked to meet?
Parts of an effective Lesson
1. Introductory activities
2. Developmental activities
3. Closing activities
Parts of performance objectives
a) An action statement identifying the action that the teacher expects the student to perform
b) A conditions statement identifying the conditions under which the action occurs
c) A criterion statement identifying the criteria or level of performance expected of the student
action statement
The ________________ is always stated in terms of what the student is expected to know or do.
condition statement
The __________________ lists the conditions or circumstances under which the students are to perform the task or assignment given to them by the teacher; these conditions may include a) materials given to students, b) time limits for the completion of the task, and c) the location for the task to be performed.
criterion statement
The _________________ is the standard by which students’ successful completion of the objective is measured, sometimes referred to as the standard of performance, sets the level of acceptable performance for the objective.
The 3 learning domains are:
Cognitive –
Affective –
Psychomotor –
Cognitive
refers to mental or intellectual thinking skills and abilities
Affective
classifies student attitudes toward learning
Psychomotor
involves physical movement and related skills
Bloom’s Taxonomy has 6 levels of the cognitive domain dealing with mental or intellectual thinking skills and abilities:
1. Knowledge –
2. Comprehension –
3. Application –
4. Analysis –
5. Synthesis –
6. Evaluation – the highest level of complexity and includes objectives related to judging in terms of a)internal evidence or logical consistency and b) external evidence or consistency with facts developed elsewhere.
Knowledge
includes objectives related to a) knowledge of specifics, b) knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics, c) knowledge of universals and abstractions
Comprehension
objectives include a) translation, b) interpretation and c) extrapolation of materials
Application
Objectives are related to the use of abstractions in particular situations.
Analysis
objectives related to breaking a whole into parts and distinguishing a) elements, b) relationships, c) organizational principles
Synthesis
objectives related to putting parts together in a new form such as a) a unique communication, b) a plan of operation, and c) a set of abstract relations
Evaluation
the highest level of complexity and includes objectives related to judging in terms of a)internal evidence or logical consistency and b) external evidence or consistency with facts developed elsewhere.
Cognitive Domain
KNOWLEDGE
COMPREHENSION
APPLICATION
ANALYSIS
SYNTHESIS
EVALUATION
KNOWLEDGE
Student recalls or
recognizes information,
ideas, and principles
in the approximate
form in which they
were learned
COMPREHENSION
Student translates,
comprehends, or
interprets information
based on prior
learning.
APPLICATION
Student selects, trans-
fers, and uses data
and principles to
complete a problem
or task with a mini-
mum of direction.
ANALYSIS
Student distinguishes,
classifies, and relates
the assumptions,
hypotheses, evidence,
or structure of a
statement or question.
SYNTHESIS
Student originates,
integrates, and
combines ideas into a
product, plan or
proposal that is new
to him or her.
EVALUATION
Student appraises,
assesses, or critiques
on a basis of specific
standards and criteria.
Affective Domain
Receiving
Responding
Valuing
Organization
Characterization by Value
Receiving
Being aware of or attending to something in the environment
Responding
Showing some new behaviors as a result of experience
Valuing
Showing some definite involvement or commitment
Organization
Integrating a new value into one's general set of values, giving it some ranking among one's general priorities
Characterization by Value
Acting consistently with the new value
Psychomotor Domain
REFLEX MOVEMENTS
FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENTS
PERCEPTUAL ABILITIES
PHYSICAL ABILITIES
SKILLED MOVEMENTS
NONDISCURSIVE COMMUNICATION
Parts of a Lesson Plan
1) identifying course information,
2) objectives for the lesson
3) procedures
4) materials
5) evaluation of students; other possible items rationale for the lesson, outline of the subject matter, list of key points, assignment of homework, a timetable, special notes, evaluation of lesson
Sources of Student Diversity
- Cognitive Area
- Struggling Learners
- Gifted or talented Learners
- Affective area
- Learning Styles
- Cognitive Style
- Brain hemisphercity
- Sensory Modality
- Creative Potential
- Gender
- Cultural Diversity
Brain hemisphericity
the two halves of the brain appear to serve different functions even though they are connected by a complex network which orchestrates their teamwork. Each side is dominant in certain respects
Cultural diversity
is reflected in the wide variety of values, beliefs, attitudes, and rules that define regional, ethnic, religious, or other culture groups.
Students at Risk
children and adolescents who are not able to acquire and/or use the skills necessary to develop their potential and become productive members of society. Students potentially at risk include children who face adverse conditions beyond their control, those who do not speak English as a first language, talented but unchallenged students, those with special problems and many others. At risk students often have academic difficulties and thus may be low achievers.
Least Restrictive Environment
students with special needs are placed in special settings only if necessary and only for as long as necessary; the regular classroom is the preferred, least restrictive placement.
Creativity
the process of creating ideas or hypotheses concerning these ideas, testing the hypotheses, modifying and retesting the hypotheses, and communicating the results.
Sensory modality
a system of interacting with the environment through one or more of the basic senses. The most important modalities for teachers are the visual, auditory, and kinesthetic modes.
Field-dependence/field-independence
deals with the extent to which individuals can overcome effects of distracting background elements when trying to differentiate among relevant aspects of a particular situation.
Learning style
– an individual’s preferences for the conditions of the learning process that can affect one’s learning, including where, when and how learning takes place and with what materials.
Cognitive style
– refers to the way people process information and use strategies in responding to tasks
Conceptual tempo
deals with students being impulsive or reflective when selecting from two or more alternatives.
Socioeconomic Status (SES)
A family's socioeconomic status is based on family income, parental education level, parental occupation, and social status in the community (such as contacts within the community, group associations, and the community's perception of the family)
Elements of the curriculum that can be differentiated
1. content
2. Process
3. The products
Content
knowledge, skills, and attitudes related to the subject and the materials and mechanisms through which learning is accomplished
 Concrete to Abstract
Process
– includes instructional activities or approaches used to help students learn the curriculum
 Simple to complex
Products
vehicles through which students demonstrate what they have learned
 Few Facets to many facets
Student Characteristics That Teachers can differentiate
1. in their readiness to work with a particular idea or skill at a given time
2. in the topics that they find interesting
3. learning profiles that may be shaped by gender, culture, learning style, or intelligence preference
Student's Readiness
The skill level and background knowledge of the child
Student's Interests
Topics that the student may want to explore or that will motivate the student (e.g., relevant to the content area, outside interests of the student, etc.)
Student's Learning Profile
Learning style - a visual, auditory, tactile, or kinesthetic learner)
Grouping preferences - individual, small group, or large group)
Environmental preferences - lots of space or a quiet area to work
Instructional Strategies That Facilitate Differentiation
 Direct Instructional Approaches –
Inductive instructional approaches –
Social instructional approaches –
Independent instructional approaches –
Direct Instructional Approaches
those in which teachers tell the students the concept or skill to be learned and then lead students through most of instructional activities designed to lead student learning
o Direct Instructions
o Presentations
o Demonstrations
o Questions recitations
o Practice and drills
o Reviews
o Guided practice and homework
Inductive instructional approaches
those that are involved in some type of exploratory activity helping lead students to discover a concept or generalization
o Concept attainment strategies
o Inquiry lessons
o Projects, reports and problems
Social instructional approaches
Students working together in various ways to gather, process, and learn the information or skills
o Discussions
o Cooperative learning
o Panels and debates
o Role Playing
o Simulations
o Games
Independent instructional approaches
allows students to pursue content independently with less teacher direction than other lessons
o Learning centers
o Contracts
o Independent Work