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201 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are related services?
services that a child with disabilities may need in order to access and benefit from special education
To be identified as a student with mental retardation a person must have poor adaptive behavior skills and score 2 _______ below the norm on an IQ test.
standard deviations
Heward states which three factors responsible for increased emphasis on parent and family involvement in their children's education?
1. educator's desire to increase effectiveness
2. legislative mandates
3. parent advocacy
Name three characteristics of exceptional children.
1. one with MR
2. 7 yrs old can read colllege material
3. visual impairement which hinders his reading of normal books
Describe the child find concept.
States are responsible for locating, identifying, and evaluating all children suspected of having disabilities
Explain the concept of least restrictive environment.
1. continuum of placement and services must be provided by schools.
2. IEPsmust justify and explain the extent to which a child wil not participate with nondisabled peers.
3. must be appropriate
What would a good example be of a person with a handicap in a classroom?
Connie lost her hearing and, despite a hearing aid, she now has communication problems.
What does Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 say?
1. It is civil rights legislation, almost identical to CRA of '64
2. Accessibility to all regardless of ability/disability for programs receiving federal funds
What is not required by IDEA?
Appropriate education for students with gifts and talents
What is one of the four largest disability categories?
Children with emo/beha disorders
What is an example of a curriculum-based assessment?
A student is assessed in content they are leanring in school and classified as needing additional reading instruction
PARC vs. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
a free public educaitonwas to be provided and that placement in non-segragated settings was preferable
What kind of child would probably not receive FAPE under IDEA?
99% of children are entitiled to education under IDEA
What is a manifestation determination?
a rewview of the relationship b/w a student's disability and their misconduct
Due to Clarence's academic needs, his IEP team felt he should spend most (over 61%) of his day outside of the regular classroom. What setting would this place him on the continuum of services?
special class/self contained
The IDEA principle that children cannot be excluded from a FAPE is called what?
Zero reject
Robert has ceberal palsy and is physically unable to speak. His teacher helps him learn to use a communication board. What level of interventoin is he receiving?
Jasmine will decode a list of 20 words with the intital consonant blends of /sl/, /st/, and /sp/ with 90% accuracty is an example of what?
Short-term objective
What are the 3 defining features of special education?
data driven, child centerd, and outcome oriented.
What is an example of an LRE?
all studetns with disabilities are educated with non disabled peers to the maximum extent appropriate
What was this landmark case:
The history of special education in regard to the education of children with disabilities in regular schools and classes is related to civil rights litigation that stipulated equal access to education.
Brown vs. Board of Education
Topeka, KS
What are intelligence tests the single best predictor of?
school acheivement
Joyce's IEP team is determinging her LRE. What are three things that she must consider when making this determination?
1. behavior at lunch and recess
2. functioning in the regular classroom in academic areas.
3. participation in school clubs and athletics
Classwide Peer Tutoring is a good teaching strategy for all because in includes what three reseach baseed instructional practices?
1. frequent/direct performance measurement
2. active student responding
3. immediate reinforcement and feedback
What is the main purpose of a multi-factored evaulation team?
must provide information about eligibility, a child's needs, and how to meet them
What is an example of appropriate implementation of PROTECTION in evaluation procedures?
As Maria does not speak English, a pyschlogist administers her test in her native language
How do most special educators and thier professional organizations feel about full inclusion?
A continuum of services must be maintained and IEP goals and placements must remain individualized
What are three specified components of an IEP and name what that is not.
1. frequency of service delivery
2. learning goals and objectives
3. who will provide the services

NOT-> statement of parental supports
What is the most crucial variable for the academic and social successes of children with disabilities?
quality of instruction they receive
What does extensive evidence show about the effectivness of education programs with parent involvment?
increased when parents are involved
What is the term that implies no judgement and does not equate difference with disability?
culturally diverse
When a team meets to decide on an LRE, what are the involved in?
What is pre-referral intervention?
reduces chances of identifying a child for special education who is not disabled
Melanie was diagnosed with mild MR but there were not biological causes or physical trauma to explain it. What is the cause probably?
psychosocial disadvantage
What is dialoguing?
approach to confict resolution in which both parties try to see easch other's point of view
What are three reasons by Heward for disproportionate placement of culturally diverse students in special education? (3)
1. ineffective curriculum
2. incongruity b/w teachers and diverse student
3. inaccurate assessment
During Milo's math class he participated in instruction that included choral responding, response cards, and computer assisted instruction. These are methods characterized by high rates of:
active student response
What is an example of the sandwich techniqe?
Freddy has a lot of friends in class, and though he still becomes aggressive sometimes, he has the social skills to make amends later.
What is generalization?
using new knowledge and skills in settings different from those in which they are taught
What is the best approach during the acquisition stage of learning?
ensure feedback after each response
What is an example of learned helplessness?
Tom is never successful tying his own shoe3 so he just doesn't do it anymore.
What is an example of respite care?
an agency that provides a specially trained babysitter to watch a child with disabilities while parents go see a movie
Which is an example of a home/school contract?
Juanita will receive a dessert for dinner if she volunteers in class that day.
Jane's objective is to learn to use a public pay phone. In an ABA approach what should be the first step?
Task analysis
When are most sudents with MR identified?
elementary school as late as 2nd or 3rd grade
What is the emphasis on AARM's 2002 system of MR classification?
development of profiles of needed supports
Example of the least likely to appear on an adaptive behavior measure:
does he like to read?
What question should be asked when determining an appropriate functional academic curriculum for a student with MR as viewd from the student's perspective?
Will I need it when I'm 21?
What is adaptive behavior?
degree to which standards of independence and social responsibility are met in a person's environment
What is community-based instruction?
teaching in the actual setting where students are ultimately to use the skills
Two teachers working in the same classroom and planning for and teaching both regular and special education students is called:
To identify a student has having an LD, most states and school districts require that these 3 criteria are met:
1. discrepency
2. exclusion
3. need for services
What is the most common characteristic of LD?
reading problems
What is functional assessment?
(IDEA supports)
develpos positive, behavioral interventions
Example of an ability achievement discrpancy
Pascal's intelligence is very superior, but his learning is only average
3 examples of content enhancements
1. graphic organizers
2. visual displays
3. guided notes
What term best applies to the word "exclusion" in the IDEA definition of LD?
What new approach shifts the indentification of LD from a wait to fail model to one of early identification and prevention?
response to treatment/instruction/intervention
What term best applies to the concept of explicit instruction?
models and examples
What is Dibels?
developed as a curriculum based measure to be an efficient indicator of key reading skills for early identification of children at risk for reading failure and to assess the effects of interventions
The IDEA definition requires that a child identified with EM meet the condition of severity, difficulty in school, and _______?
What is an example of chronicity?
George has been depressed and withdrawn for 7 months
What is probably the most powerful classroom managment tool available?
use of contingent and systematic teacher praise
The primary behavior around wich other behavioral excesses resolve is ___?
If a teacher uses response cards they should expect what?
improvements in student participation
What is the cause of most EBD?
combination of nature and nuture: biology factors, home and school factors, and societal factors
What is a poor example of an "alterable variable?"
time spent on homework each night
Example of self monitoring
a student talks out of turn and then records the occurence
Example of self evaluation
student notes that his homework is 60% of assignments and is far behind of the class average of 90%
What is rate of behavior?
how often an behavior occurs
What is FBA?
systematically gathering info through ovbservation and structured intervews to understand why a student is engaging in a challenging behavior
What is true about children identified with EBD?
boys are more liley to have externalizing disorders

girls are more likely to have internalizing disorders
Example of a receptive language disorder?
trouble understanding most directions
What 3 things does communication require?
3 components of augmentative and alternative communication
representational set, means of selection, means of transmitting
Assuming that each adversly affects educational performance, what children would qualify for special educational services?
1. hoarse voice
2. stutter
3. can't pronounce some words
Phonology is what?
linugistic rules governing a language's sound system
Children with impaired ______ have trouble producing sounds; children with impaired _____ have trouble understanding or using the symbols and rules of communication
What are 3 communication functions?
Example of a phonological disorder
Garrett has the ability to pronounce the /s/ sound but does not do it correclty most of the time
What are unaided and alternative communication techniques
oral speech, gestures, facail expressiokns, general body posture, and manual signs
What is articulation?
formation of sounds by tongue, lips, teeth, and mouth
What is stuttering?
related to setting/circumstances of speech, usually childhood disorder, not only sound repetitions, but prolongations of sounds and hestitations
What is PECS?
system of communication
What did the Lovass 1987 study find?
after intense behavioral training if a child passed first grade then their chances of being successful in school dramatically increased
What are the 5 neurobhavioral syndromes (autism) differentiated by?
age of onset
What are 3 sitgns that a child is not developing properly?
lack of pointing
lack of smiling
lack of imitation
What is one of teh researched and most used educational approaches to teach children with autism?
ABA may include which three things? What would it NOT include?
discrete trial traning
peer mediated interventions

NOT-> medicine
Autism can be reliably diagnosed at hwat age?
18 months old
Andy is read to by his teacher. The teacher describes an upcoming event and exactly what will happen. She has been reading this section over for 2 weeks. What is her purpose?
decrease anxiety about upcoming event and shape behavior in response to event
What is autism?
developmental disorder whose cause is assumed to be biological in nature but is treated behaviorally
Jeff's teacher systematically varied (manipulated) the difficulty of academic tasks to evaluate if Jeff's non compliant behavior was triggered by the degree of task difficulty. This is an example of what?
functional analysis
Frieda is 6th grade student with EBD who sits by herself (withdrawn) every recess with her head down
What is an example of adapting a lesson?
altering the way students obtain or demonstrate knowledge WITHOUT changing the learning objective
What type of adaption best identifies: "assigning peers as tutors"
level of support
What are three characteristics about adaptation and modification?
best through collaborative problem solving, maximizes participation in gen ed, not new to education
Most studetns with LD are provided their education for most of the day where?
regular classroom
Although the author of IDEA's definition of ED included in this group when writing the definition, the law does not allow inclusion of ________ in this category
students who are considered socially majadjusted
What is an example of echolia?
asked "How are you today" and student responds "How are you today"
Mary did not attend school until 9 years old. When she enrolled, she was found to be significantly behind academically. What's going on assuming IDEA criteria are applied?
She cannot be found elegible as LD now but maybe in the future.
What is an example of a student who has trouble with generalization of learning?
Billy can tie his sneakers but cannot tie his dress shoes
What are the findings of research regarding studetns with LD/reading problems described in the text?
there's a dysfunction in rapid speed naming, there's a dysfunction in decoding or fluently reading single words, there are problems with phonological awareness in oral language
*comprehsnesion is affected by ineffiecient word reading
True or False?
Culturally competent teachers are colorblind. They would agree that all students should be treated alike in order to be fair to all.
True or False?
Incongruity bw teachers and culturally diverse students is expected to decrease as the proportion of white teachers continues to shrink over the next decade.
True or False?
The primary issue with inaccurate assessment and referral is one of isolating "within the child" like disability from factors dependent upon external contexts such as culture and language
True or False?
Low student achievement and high dropout rates are inherently a funciton of famly and social or ethnic backround of students
True or False?
Poverty and belonging to a single parent family are two variables most highly correlated with increased risk for childhood disability
True or False?
The process of becoming a culturally proficient teacher begins with gaining knowledge about other cultures
True or False?
Alternate assessments are most appropriatge for some culturally and linguistically diverse studetns
True or False?
Court decisions and legislation prohibit discrimination of educational opportunity by schools in the areas of gender, race, or ability to speak English
True or False?
Some bilingual programs in the US focus on teaching English speaking students another language
True or False?
Blacks have the highest dropout rate of any identified minority group
True or False?
Most bilingual programs use a maintenence or transitional approach
True or False?
The focus in bilingual special education is to individually desing an intervention program to learn English
True or False?
Some child's cultural backround and expectations wil prevent them from benefiting from goods, systematic instruction
True or False?
The transitional approach in bilingual education programs helps the student function in both the native language and English promiting bilingulaism.
True or False?
Because poverty, single parent and cultual backround predict disability, referral should be based on children's backround as well as their needs
True or False?
A passive listener may attend to the content of what is said but doesn't interpret it in the context of who said it and how he said it
True or False?
It is very important that parents are involved in planning and specifying their preferred needs for parent education and support groups
True or False?
Parents have been the primary advocacy force for the education of children with disabilities
What are some typical roles of parents of children with disabilities?
behavior support specialist, counselor, and even teacher
What is the mirror model for parental involvment?
assumes that not all parents need all that professionals have to offer and that no parent should be expected to provide everything
What is respite care?
temporary care of an individual with disabilities by non-family members
True or False?
Children with disabilities are more likely to be reported in abuse and neglect cases relative to children without disabilites
What are three examples of related services?
special transportation, speech language therapy, counseling
What does inclusion mean?
There is no clear consensus in the field of special education about its meaning, nature, or intent
P.L. 99-457
encouraged early intervention services for 3-5 year olds or else: PK funds ripped and... encouraged grants from birth to 2 years old
True or False?
Federal funding reimburses states for the majority of expenses related to provision of special education services
Federal funding does NOT reimburse the states. The states pay for the majority of special educational services.
True or False?
There are two distinct kinds of children: regular and exceptional
Is prereferral intervention a required component of IDEA?
No, it is not
What are teh required members of an IEP team?
teachers and related service providers ONLY.
NO children/parents
What do IEPs state?
how the child's progress toward annual goals will be measured
Whate are the 6 principles of IDEA
1. Zero Reject
2. Nondiscriminatory ID/EV
4. LRE
5. Due Process Safeguards
6. Parent/Student Participation
Zero Reject?
All children with disabilites are entitled to services, not matter what
Nondiscriminatory Identification/Evaluation?
trained personell test correctly in native language with reliable instruments
Free and Appropriate education to general educataion with involvment in state and district assessments
Least restrictive environment
IEP: justification from time away from classroom, academics, extracurricular, and nonacademics
Due Process Safeguards?
school provided
protects civil rights of children with disabilites and their parents
parental consent for everything
What age must an IEP address transition needs?
True or False?
A child's parents are a part of a school-based evaluation team
IDEA states that goals and objectives on an IEP must be developed by whom?
IEP Team
What is the intent of LRE?
What are three principles of effective communication bw educators and parents?
accept parent's say
stay focused
question effectively
What is a home-school contract?
specifies parent delivered rewards for the child contingent on behavior or academic performance in the classroom
Both parties try to see each other's point of view
Hearing plays the lead role in the ________ almost ______ manner by which most children acquire ____ and ____
natural; effortless; speech;language
What is a hearing impairment?
disability category used in IDEA indicating a hearing loss for which special education and related services are needed
What is key to providing special educational services for hearing impaired?
early identification and assessment
Characteristics of people who are deaf?
unable to use hearing, maybe some residual hearing, language development and commuication are primarily visual
Hard of hearing?
significant hearing loss that makes some special adaptations ncescessary uslaly with aids
S&L may be delayed but developed primarily through the auditory channel
What is sensorineural hearing loss?
caused by damage to auditory nerve fibers or other mechanisms to the inner ear (Cochlea damage)
What are problems with sensorineural hearing loss?
sound being delivered to the brain (distorted)
hearing aids may not help
cannot be corrected
What is conductive hearing loss?
abnormalities or complications of the outer/middle ear?
What are problems with conductive hearing loss?
transmitting sounds to inner ear
What are two upsides to having conductive hearing loss rather than sensorineural hearing loss?
CHL can be corrected and helped with amplifications and surgery
What is Congenital hearing loss?
present at birth
What is adventitous hearing loss?
later in life
What is prelingual hearing loss?
before development of spoken language
What is postlingual hearing loss and what does education focus on?
after development of spoken language- education focuses on maintenance of intelligible speech and appropriate language patterns
What are the causes for hearing loss?
100s unknown.
exact cause 50% unknown in children.
What is the statistic for married deaf people?
Married deaf people have a slightly higher chance of having children who are deaf than a hearing couple
What % of deaf children are born to hearing parents?
What percent of people have a chronic hearing loss?
What percent of all school age students receive special education because of hearing loss?
What percent of special educational studetns had prelingual hearing loss?
What percent of students who are deaf or hard of hearing have other disabilities such as MR, LD, EBD, visual, physical?
True or False?
One acquires speech spontaneously if he loses his hearing really early
What is the likelihood to be literate and academically successful depend upon with hearing impaired persons?
degree of loss, age of onset, attitudes of family, opportunities to acquire first languaage, presence or abscence of other disabilites
What is the first language for many deaf persons? Then testing in ___ is inappropriate.
Sign; English
True or False?
A deaf student who is one grade behind will in most cases fall further and further behind as they grow older
How can HL influence a student's behavior and socio-emotional development?
experience feelings of isolation and depression due to lack of communication skills
What are three broad educational approaches to HL?
total communication
bilingual/bicultural approach
What is the primary obhective when one uses an educational approach to HL?
development and use of language and commmunication skills
What is the Educational: Oral/Aural approach to HL?
"speech is viewed as essential to funcion"
-producing speech is focus
-25% programs use this
-time consuming with deaf
-less severe
What is the Oral: auditory learning approach to HL?
-listen to learn/learn to listen
-help children with hearing impairments develop residual hearing
What are the 4 levels of auditory traning?
1. dectecting
2. discriminating
3. identifying
4. comprehension of meaningful sounds
What is the Oral: speeh reading approach to HL?
-process of understanding a spoken message by observing the speaker's face-VALUABLE
-"lipreading"- not just lips
-context clues
What are some limitations of speechreading?
-synonomous meanings
-blockage of visual clues
-non movement of lips
Wht is the oral: cued speech approach?
supplementing oral communication
adding cues with hand signals near the chin
clarify patterns of English
What is the educational: total communication approach?
taught through simulateous presentation of manual communication and speech
What is the predominant method of HL instruction?
What is manually coded english?
educationally oriented sign systems such as Seeing Essential English, Signing Exact Enligh, Signed English
-incorp ASL but follows correct Enlgish and WORD ORDER
What is the bilingual bicultural approach to HL?
ASL American Sign Language
What is ASL?
visual spatial language
-language of Deaf culture in US and Canada
Why is "D" capitalized in Deaf culture?
has its own rules of language and does not correspond to spoken or written English
What age do children produce and understand signs effectively?
5 months ASL
How is meaning conveyed by ASL?
shape, location, movement, and facial expressions
What does the Deaf culture believe about their deafness?
not a disability but a cultural and linguistic difference
__% of children who are deaf or HI attend local public schools
__% of deaf/public school are in the reg classroom
___ of home schooled schildren have additional disabilities other than hearing loss
What are factors for HL success?
good oral communiucation skills, strong parental support, av/ab av intelligence, self conf, support services
True or False?
Teachers should direct as many or more utterances to deaf studetns as they do hearing students
What do professionals belive about HL students and placement?
Professionals believe in maintaining a continuum of placement options
What are some technologies that amplify/provide sound?
hearing aids
assistive listening devices
cochlear implants
What is the most controversial hearing supplementation?
cochlear implants *page 381*
Whate are some supports that technology offers for those HI?
speech to text transl
tv captions
texting on cells
alerting devices
What do some people belive that being deaf is not a disability?
What is the Deaf Cultures' view on COCHLEAR IMPLANTS?
Why is the age of onset relevant to understanding the needs of a child with HI?