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40 Cards in this Set

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Macroeconomics deals with the economy as a what?
whole
The market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
___ = C+I+G+NX
Y (or GDP)
In the equation for GDP, C stands for what and what percentage of GDP does it make up?
consumption, 69%
In the equation for GDP, I stands for what and what percentage does it make up?
investment, 16%
In the equation for GDP, G stands for what and what percentage does it make up?
government spending, 18%
In the equation for GDP, NX stands for what and what percentage does it make up?
net exports, -3%
The percentage GDP components of C+I+G can be greater than 100% if ____ is greater than X
M
A measure of the overall cost of the goods and services bought by a typical customer
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
How many steps does it take to calculate CPI?
5
What are the steps to calculate CPI?
1. Fix the basket
2. Find the price of each good in each year
3. Compute the cost of the basket in each year
4. Choose one year as the base year and compute the CPI for each year
5. Use the CPI to compute inflation rate from previous year
______ = (CPI year x - CPI base year)/CPI base year *100
rate of inflation
What are three problems with CPI?
substitution bias, introduction of new goods, unmeasured quality change
GDP deflator reflects the prices of all goods and services produced domestically, while CPI reflects the prices of all goods and services _______________.
bought by consumers
CPI compares the price of a FIXED basket of goods and services to the price of the basket in the base year, while GDP deflator compares the price of ________ _________ goods and services to the price of the same goods and services in the base year.
currently produced
This is the equation for inflation adjustment.
dollars in year x = dollars in year y * (CPI year x/CPI year y)
automatic correction of a dollar aount for the effects of inflation by law or contract
indexation
Indexation is important for ______, _________, ________, and ____________.
long-term contracts
cost-of-living allowance
social security
federal income tax brackets
rule of 70 is:
# of years required to double = 70/growth rate
certificate of indebtedness that specifies the obligations of the borrower to the holder of the bond (like an IOU)
bond
represents ownership in a firm and is claim to the profits that a firm makes
stock
financial institutions through which savers can DIRECTLY provide funds to borrowers
financial markets
financial institutions through which savers can INDIRECTLY provide funds to borrowers
financial intermediaries
saving is what:
putting money into a bond or stock
investing is what:
purchase of new capital
what are three functions of money
medium of exchange, unit of account, store of value
what is liquidity
the ease with which an asset can be converted into the economy's medium of exchange
what is the difference between commodity money and fiat money?
commodity money takes the form of a commodity with intrinsic value (has value even if not used as money, i.e. gold coins), and fiat money has no intrinsic value
Federal Reserve System has ___ members with ___ year terms, a chair with a __ year term, and ___ regional Federal Reserve Banks in major US cities.
7, 14, 4, 12
Jobs of ________________ include: regulate banks and ensure the health of the banking system, and control quantity of money in economy through the FOMC
Federal Reserve System
Which group has the power to increase or decrease the number of dollars in the economy?
Federal Open Market Committee
money multiplier =
reciprocal of reserve ration (if ration is 1/10, multiplier = 10)
Open-Market Operations are what?
purchase and sale of US government bonds by the Fed
What are reserve requirements?
regulations on the minimum amount of reserves that banks must hold against deposits
What is discount rate?
interest rate on the loans that Fed makes to banks
When depositors suspect that a bank may go bankrupt and go to the bank to withdraw their deposits, it is called a ___________.
bank run
What protects banks from a bank run?
FDIC
M2 includes:
certificates of deposit, checkable deposits, traveler's checks
real interest rate = ?
nominal interest rate - inflation rate
when banks hold only a fraction of deposits in reserve, banks.....?
create money