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20 Cards in this Set

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What is the difference between bioaccumulation and biomagnification?
accumulation: low dose but toxic over time, such as ingesting small amounts of arsenic and then getting sick later on in life

magnification: species at the top of the food chain that take in toxic dosages such as the bald eagle
What is point-source pollution?
Sources that are easy to identify and monitor
What is non-point source pollution
Pollution that has a poorly defined source, it is scattered and hard to monitor
True or false: Pollution is equally distributed
False, pollution is not equally distributed
In what ways are we empowered?
1) Economic - To use our $ differently

2) Political - We can be vocal enough to change things and gain power

3) Media - We have the power to be vocal enough on the media to get certain messages across

4) Census - We can use the census to gain information about resources and learn about our minorities
What can the pesticide DBT do?
It can cause breast cancer, miscarriages, infertility
What are the types of toxins?
Carcinogens - Cancers
Mutagens - DNA mutations
Teratogens - Birth Defects
Allergens
Neurotoxins - Causes NS / brain damage
Endocrine Disruptors - Interferes with hormones
What are the three types of pollution?
Emissions - Pollution released into the air and falls to the water and the ground

Runoff- Pollution on the ground or surface

Leaching- Pollution soaking into ground water
Whats the difference between hazard and risk?
Hazard - it can and probably will happen. example: asbestos in schools

Risk - there is a chance it will happen, it is voluntary.. example: putting children in sports
What is the quickest "route of pollution"?
Inhalation, inhaling pollutants is the quickest way into the body
What are the four types of hazards?
1) Physical
2) Chemical
3) Biological
4) Cultural
What is the difference between chronic and acute?
Chronic: effect is over a period of years

Acute: life is in immediate danger
What defines "pollution"?
Something released by humans in large enough quantities to harm or effect people or the environment.
What is the slowest "pollution route"?
Absorption through the skin
What predicts the effects of higher doses and predicts toxicity for humans at various levels?
Dose-response curve
What is the dose-response curve?
It predicts the effects of higher doses and predicts toxicity for humans at various levels
What is Minamata Disease?
Acute Mercury poisoning, over 12,000 people suffered.
What is a risk-benefit analysis?
It is estimating the short and long-term benefits and risks.

1) How important is the thing? For example, pesticides

2) How large is the population of the people that benefits from the pesticides?

3) Do the benefits outweigh the risks?
What are the 4 parts of an Impact Assessment?
1) Hazard Assessment - determines toxicity

2) Dose-response Assessment (How much?)

3) Exposure Assessment (How long?)

4) Risk characterization (How many are impacted?
How is the dose-response assessment done?
It determines toxicities of certain chemicals and toxins by testing on mice and rats and then plotted on a dose-response curve.