Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/80

Click to flip

80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
absolute humidity
" amount of water present in a unit volume of air (e.g., g/L). "
acclimation
" compensatory change in response to a maintained deviation in a single environmental variable, usually in the laboratory. "
acclimatization
compensatory change in response to maintained deviations in more than one environmental variable; usually under natural conditions.
acute.
term applied to short term exposure to high levels of physical factors.
adaptation
any modification that promotes the likelihood of an organism's production of viable gene sets.
aerial
adapted for flying.
Allen's rule
" ecogeographic rule that maintains that within polytypic species, individuals from the northern part of the range tend to have relative1y shorter appendage length. "
alluvium
mineral component of soil arising from rivercarried materials.
alpha particle
" a helium nucleus; two protons plus two neutrons. Product of unstable isotopes, a form of radioactivity. "
arboreal
term applied to organisms highly adapted for living in trees.
autecology
study of organisms in relation to their physical environment; ecology of individuals or species.
Bergmann's rule
" within a polytypic species, individuals from the northern part of the range are larger than those from the southern part of the range. "
beta particle
positron (+ particle) or electron ( particle) produced as a result of decomposition of unstable isotopes.
biotic
biological; usually used to describe the components of factors such as the environment that are due to biological factors.
chronic
term which refers to situations in which organisms are exposed to low levels of a physical factor for a long period of time.
cline
variation in population characteristics over a geographic range; usually in conjunction with environmental v~riation and often a linear function of latitude.
convergent evolution
increasing similarity of relatively unrelated organisms: results from living in similar habitats.
crepuscular
active at twilight (dawn or dusk) or in the twilight zone of caves.
cursorial
adapted for a running mode of existence in open habitat; prairie animals.
diapause
period of inactivity in insects; overwintering in which the organism is resistant to cold. May be a temporary interruption in growth of larvae which is associated with a dormant period. Not a form of hypothermia.
diurnal
active during tight periods.
ecological indicator
species whose presence provides information about the nature of the local environment.
ecology
the study of the relationships between organisms and between organisms and their environment.
ecotype
genetically different populations restricted to different habitats; minor variations in form and physiology brought about by geographic differences in environment.
ectothermy
maintenance of body temperature by means of heat obtained outside of the body.
edaphic
" pertaining to, or influence by, soil conditions. "
endothermy
" maintenance of body temperature by means of heat produced within the body, usually by shivering. "
environment.
the sum total of all factors that influence organisms.
estivation
" avoid dry, hot conditions in a burrow or other protected location; not a form of hypothermia. "
eurythermal
having a wide tolerance to temperature.
evapotranspiration
the total water loss resulting from evaporation from plants (transpiration) and from all other surfaces in the community.
gamma ray
very shortwave electromagnetic radiation; produced as a result of the decay of unstable isotopes and may cause molecular and cellular damage in living organisms.
growth form
the phenotypic e <pression of the genotype as influenced by the environ me It.
halophyte
a plant which is highly tolerant of salinity.
halflife
the time required for onehalf of an amount of unstable isotope to break down to its next product. 1 heat a form of energy transferable between objects having different temperatures.
heterothermy
ability to be homeothermic or poikilothermic at turns; hibernators or animals who enter torpor regularly.
hibernation
a form of adaptive hypothermia in which animals spend the winter in protected sites; requires considerable physiological preparation such as changes in blood electrolytes and fat deposition.
homeotherm
" animal which maintains a relatively high, constant body temperature. "
hydric
wet; aquatic habitat.
hydrophyte
plant adapted to existence in a moist or aquatic habitat.
hypertonic
having an effective osmotic concentration higher than a reference solution.
hypotonic
having an effective osmotic concentration lower than a reference solution.
hypothermia.
having a body temperature lower than some normal standard.
isotonic
having the same osmotic concentration as some other reference solution.
lacustrine
" refers to mineral components of soil that originate in the benthic zone of lakes (e.g., marl). "
life form
characteristic structure of a plant or animal which reflects adaptation to a particular habitat.
loess
windcarried minerals which contribute locally to soils.
lower critical temperature
ambient temperature below which an endothermic homeotherm must increase its metabolic rate in order to maintain its body temperature. 7
marl
precipitated carbonates in the benthic zone of a lake.
mesic
intermediate; usually used to describe environmental conditions. 1 mesophyte plant best adapted to intermediate conditions.
mor soil
acidic soil having low invertebrate populations and low decomposition rates.
motile
capable of movement.
mull soil
neutral or basic soils which have large invertebrate populations and relatively great rates of decomposition.
nocturnal
active at night.
oikos
" Greek root for the word ""ecology""; means home or habitation. "
photoperiod.
the daily regime of light/dark.
photoperiodism
behavioral and/or physiological response to change in daily ratios of daylight/darkness.
poikilotherm
~ organism whose body temperature is near that of ambient over most of the temperature range.
productive energy
surplus energy remaining after that necessary for basic
radiation
" part of the electromagnetic spectrum (light) or a particle produced by unstable, radioactive isotopes. "
rain shadow.
the region on the lee side of mountains where rainfall is lower than on the windward side.
relative humidity
the amount of water in the air relative to the amount at saturation under the same conditions.
respiration
sum total of metabolic processes reflected as the utilization of oxygen or production of carbon dioxide.
saltatorial
term used to refer to organisms highly adapted for jumping.
sessile
attached; immovable.
soil
" solid substrate of biotic communities composed of weathered, decomposed, organic and mineral components. "
specific heat
" capacity of a substance to take up energy; amount of energy that must be added to change temperature of a substance by a given amount (e.g., 1 calorie is required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1°C. "
stenohaline
narrow tolerance to salinity.
stenophagous
restricted food preference.
stenothermal.
having a narrow tolerance to temperature extremes.
synergism
interaction of factors such that the total effect is greater than expected.
taxis
directed movement.
temperature
an index of the kinetic energy of molecules.
torpidity
lowered body temperature accompanied by reduced respiration and loss of body movement; usually a temporary condition.
transpiration
evaporation of water from plant surfaces. 1 tropism directed growth.
ultimate factor
" aspect of the environment which promotes the survivorship and reproduction of an organism; reinforces response through natural selection (e.g., food for young as a result of timing of reproduction). "
upper critical temperature
the ambient temperature above which a homeotherm's body temperature rises sharply; thermoregulation cannot occur above this temperature.
vapor pressure deficit
difference between the water contents of two bodies as measured by partial pressure; indicates the direction and intensity of water movement.
xeric
" dry, arid. "
xerophyte
plant adapted to arid conditions.