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139 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How many species are there
2 million described with a potential of 100 million
Which species do we know alot bout
large plants and vertebrates
what is the number of species diversity
10-100 million
why are insects so successful?
specialized diverse r selected small flight
what % or species are in rainforests and coral reefs?
50-80
community
association of interacting species nhabiting some defined area
community strcture
attributes such as number of species, reliatve species abundance, and species divesity
guild
group of organisms that all make their living in the same fashion
give an example of a guild
seed eating animals in the desert
life form
combo of structure and growth dynamics --> woody --> structural parasites
diversity
richness and abundance
Know THIS
there are regularities in the relativre abundance of species in communities that hold irregardless of the ecosystem
Who developed the concept of distribution of commonness and rarity?
preston
What does prestons common and rarity graph look like?
bell-- there are few very common and few very rare
species richness
number of species in the community-- how many
species eveness
how distributed
what is the shannon warner index?
way to describe evenness and richness but there are multiple formulas
***
species diversity increase with environmental complexity or heterogeneity
give an example of environmental complexity
foliage height
what does more complex plants lead to?
more complex animals
biodiversity
number and ifference and abundance
List the aspects of biodiversity
1.) character div
functional div
community/ecosystem
genetic
population
family/order/phylum
species alpha and beta
what is character diversity
kinds of life forms
what are functional diversity
process-- like assembly line need primary producers for respiration nitrogen fixing ollination seed dispersal
what is community/ecosystem diversity
within species
what is alpha diversity
within habitat
what is beta diversity
among habitat
tell how phytoplankton preset a paradox for the idea of diversity
they live in simple environment and yet are very complex and coexist without competitive exclusion
what might account for the phytoplankton paradox
lakes are not as homo as they appear, environ may be more complex than it appears
what happens when nutrients are added to water or soils
usually reduces diversit of plants and algae
why does adding fertilizer reduce diversity of plants and algae?
reduces number of limiting nutrients
give two examples of intermediate disturbance
prairie dogs and intertidal boulders
how does sousa define disturbance
discrete, punctuated, killing,d isplacement, or damaging of one or more individuals that directly or indirectly creates an opportunty for new indicivuals to be established
what doe white and pickett think about disturbANC E(two main characteristics)
frequency
intensity
explain the cornell disturbance hypothesis
both high and low levels of disturbance would reduce diversity and intermediate promotes it because sufficient time between dist allows wide variety of species to colonice but not too long enough to allow competitive exclusion
what did sousa discover about diversity with intertidal boulders
big boulders are harderto move and less disturbed and intermediate sized held most diversity
primary production
fixation of energy by autotropsh in an ecosystem
rate of primary production
amoujnt of energy fixed over a given perod of time and space
gross primary vs net primary produciton
in excess of plants own needs
trophhic level
position in a gfood web determined by nimber of energy transfers from primary to current
AET
annuaal actual transpiration- ate of moisture and temp and rate of primary production by plotting relationship betwween annual net primary production and annualactual evapotrnaspiration
AET
annual amoutn of water that evaporates and transpires off a landscape
what kind of AET do cold dry ecosystems have
low
what did shaver and chapin do
studied adding nutrients and decided that adding both N and P is best
what happened in the lake where P was added?
phytoplankton biomass in half--> shows that nutrient avail controls rate of primary production in freshwater ecosystems
WHAT direction do things go to in the north
right
what direction do things go to in the south
left
what happens to movment at the equater
trough
residual variation
proportion of variation not explained by the independent variable
dillan and rigler suggested environ factors besides nutrient availability significantly influences phystoplankton biomass
liek intesity of predation
where is there a lot of wind driven coastal upwelling
equator
what did carpenter and kitchell propose
trophic cascade hypothesis concerning the influence of consumers on lake primary productivity
what happened in the absence of planktivorous minnows
predaceous inverts became more numerous
what happened where serenget grazed
increased productivity-- compensentary growth
what does compensentary growth do?
reduces self shading improved water balance and lowered respiration rate due to lower biomass
who studied the serengeti
mcnaughton
what is the rate of solar flow used in plant respiration
1.2%
what is the % of solar energy left over for secondary production or the net
1%
why would you want to be a vegetarian
most efficient use of energy
where is P found
sediments and mineral deposits
how do plants get P
weathering of rocks
there is alot of nitrogen avail but who is the only one that can use it
nitrogen fixers
how else can N be releeased
by fungi and bnacteria during decomp
how do we get N
meat
how does carbon cycle?
moves between organisms and atmosphere as a consequence of photosynth and respiration
what does the rate of decomposition tell us
the rate of nutrients that can cycle
assemilation
makeing inorganic into organic
nitrogen presence can increase decomposition
proven in streams
what did webster discover about streams
there is little nutrient recycling in one place because of movement-- nutrient spiraling
nutrient spiraling
-- length of stream required for a n utreitn atom to complete a cycle
S=
VT where S is sprialing length V is average velocity of anutrient atom and t is the aveage time tocomplete a cycle
what have humans done to nitrogen fixing
double it because we can make fertilizer
fynbos
temperate shrub/woodland known for high plant divesity and low soil fertility
what is myrica fay doing to hawaiin ecostsytems
it fixes nitrogent faster and is altering N dynamics-- is highering decomp rate
what is arcacia known for
being a N fixer
when is the peak of P
during snowmelgt
what did tschamike do
studied food webs associated with wetland reeds--> keystone species
what did paine do
suggested feeding activities of a few species may have a dominant influence on community structure
keystone species
any species that has a greater impact on community structure than one would predict from its abundance biomass
Are keystone species always predators?
no ex. bees cleaners fungi parasites
what is the efficienty % of energy
about 10%
give two examples of keystone species
killer whale and sea otters
trophic cascade
when teh impact of top trophic level cascades down to lower trophic levels how killer whales hurt kelp
direct effect
influence of one speices on another through immediate interaction
indirect effect
influence of a speices on another species in a roundabout manner mediated by a chnge in POPULATION SIZE of a 3rd intermediate species
give an example of an indirect effect
killer whale to urchins by eating sea lions
higher-order interaction
influence of a speices on another species ina roudaboutmanner mediated by a change in BEHAVIOR of a 3rd intermediate species
ex of higher order interaction
change in BEHAVIOR ex. if just scared sea otters
is a starfish a keystone species
yes
what did lubschenko do
proposed to resolve the effect herbivores have on plant diverrsity -- herbivores can influence
what did lubschenko study
intertidal snail- fed on green and red algae-- in absence of snail red is completitively displaced
low snail density
entero green dominates
medium snail density
competitive exclusion eliminated and algal diversity increases
high snail density
feeding requirements are high and snail preferred and less preferred algae and algal diverrsity is decreased
do fish act as keyston species
yes
give an example of an exotic species
nile perch
***
argentine ants are dispersal mutualists as keystone species
oppossum shrimp
hide during day and eat zooplankton and trout dy which mades bears and eagles die and fishermen and tourists both leave
DDT pros
cheap
sable
soluble in diesel fuel
highly toxic to insects
non toxic to people
nobel prize
DDT cons
disrupts endocrine system... sticks to plans
bioaccumulation
storage of chemcial in adipose tissue
biomagnification
increase in pollutant concentrations as your move up the food web
what makes an ideal pesticide
only toxic to target
quick acting and then degrades to harmlessness
long term exposure doesn't harm humans or nontarget organisms
doens't allow development of resistance
inexpensive
Bt is close to ideal
why are pesticides needed?
if not used 30% loss in crops
why vegetarian?
avoid chemicals that are stored and possible magnified
biological control
use of living organisms to control the population size of pest usually via predation fr parasitism
many pests are exotic species
true
the best way to control an exotic is by another exotic
FALSE usually
***
prickley pair moth is good
IPM
integrated pest management
what is IPM
application of ecology to nmanaging the population sizes of pests
what are tools used by IPM
trap crops --early planting
biocontrol agents
crop rotation
conocultrues
sterile males
vacuums
how does macarthur define ecology
search for patterns of plants and animal life that can be put on a map
what is the equilibrium model of biodiversity
explains patterns of species diversity on islands as result of immigration and extinction rates
what size and distance of islands has most species
large and near
small near and large far will have what
intermediate
which island supports smallest amount
small far
who did experiments in the florida keys
wilson and simberloff
how did brown describe six categories of species richness
time since perturbation
productivity
environmental heterogen
favorableness
niche breadth
describe productivity
high prod means high richness becuase more energy to split up
describe environ hetero
more hetero thus more potential habitat areas and niches
what does favorableness imple
tropics have more favorable weather
what about niche breadth
ultimate causes must be physicla differences
true/false rozenzweig thinks that immigration is not important but speciation is
true
what happens during el nino
warm current off peru, sea surface iss much warmers and pressure lowers and storms are created, west is cooler and pressure higher
southern oscillation
oscillation in atmospheric pressure that extends across the pacific ocean
what is la nina
periods of lower sea surface tempa nd higher pressure in east--> drought
what supports half of earth's species
tropical forests
what happens to edge effect trees on the edge
increased wind exposure and solar radiation
greenhouse effect
heat is trapped near the earth's surface by greenhouse gases
what are the greenhouse gases
water vapor, co2, methane, ozone, nitrous oxide, CFC
how much solar energy is reflected back by clouds
30$
how much solar energy is absorbed by atmosphere/surface
70%
when was co2 increse interrupted
wars depression
Name the four main threats to biological diversity
habitat loss
exotic species
habitat fragmentation
over exploitation
what solved ozone hole
CFCs montreal protocol
give examples of exotics
feral cats
nile perch
sea lamprey
brown tree snake
biodiversity hot spots
contain at least 1500 of 300000 enedmic plant species in the world 70% of natural vegetation and habitat--> must be protected help from world bank
you can do it!
yeah!