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### 75 Cards in this Set

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 What is a community populations of plant, animals and micro organisms living together within a spatial area Emergent properties properties that evolve from different aspects of studies that you can not single down to a single discipline flora/fauna plant communities/ all animals of a community Deterministic vs Contingent designated communities (already know at the beggining)/ will just leave to chance bio indicator species that can give you information about the climate what is a sample a subset of a population whats the importance of random sampling it has to be unpredicatable with equal opportunity with no bias to extrapolate the proper data from a sample that can give us a correct information about the larger populations what is the difference between absolute vs. relative relative measurements is scaled what is the formula for density n/area what is the formula for basal area the sum of (Pie*r^2 what does the importance value tell us about a sample equally weighted index of density and basal area that tell us the importance in the tree vegetation of the site (4.5 ft above ground level) IV= (RD + RBA)/2 what are the main assumptions of a geometric population growth species under study have discrete generation (the species are born, reproduce, and die at the same time and no overlap of generations) N(t)= Ro^t No Exponential growth, formula and main assumptions continuous generation is density independent Nt= Noe^rt where r= bo-do Logistic growth also continuous generations density dependent intraspecific competition dN/dt= rN(K-N0/K) carrying capacity is the maximum sustainable population size what are the calculations for descriptive statistics? And briefly describe all used for summarizing the properties of data mean- is the estimation of central tendency -variance- is a measure of dispersion around the mean - standard deviation- is the square root of variance confidence interval Confidence interval the range of values that has a __% chance of encompassing the true mean the length is a measurement of the precision what is inferential statistics testing a statistical hypothesis comparing two sample means when talking about inferential statistics what hypothesis can you form Null Hypothesis= two sample means are the same Hyp Alt- the true means are different Trophic levels shows how energy is transferred in an ecosystem geologic formations kinds of earth processes taking place in an area microclimatology study of climate near the ground what do we mean when we say community classification? And what classification do our region fall in? communities can be classifed into groups much like species we are apart of the oak hickory division dendrochronology trees aged by counting growth rings using a increment borer succession is the study of the development of ecosystems it is an orderly series of ecosystem changes that are a product of the interactions between abiotic and biotic factors. generalists and specialists can tolerate a very wide range of conditions while some require narrow specific conditions induced species q those species of plants and animals that are not native to the area under study ex the new york pigeon ` define the stratisfication in forest canopy subcanopy shrubs herbs, litter(mosses) stratisfication canopy subcanopy shrubs herbs, litter(mosses) what is the difference between inter and intraspecific occur when two different species interact with one another and intra is when individual of the same species interact with each other regression charaterizes the linear relationship between two variables x- independent variable y- dependent variable r^2 proportion of the variation (in y) explained by linear regression (on x) ontogeny development of an individual organism isometry constant proportions y=bx allometry differential rates of growth of two or more structures/ dimensions y=bm^m where m not = 1 is it is it will just be isometric gene a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific sequence of DNA or RNA locus a specific place along the length of the chromosome where a given gene is located allele a particular form or variant of a gene found at a given locus that produces a distinguishable phenotypic effect genotype the combination of alleles present in an individual for one gene phenotype the resulting trait in the organism What is the Hardy weinberg equilibrium equation? p2 + 2pq + q2=1 what are the 4 conditions of hardy weinberg equilibrium large population no mutations (no drift) no migration (no gene flow) no natural selection neutral mutation no selective or evolutionary effect ex. substitution of one base for another in a gene coding a region such that the product is not modified negligable diff protein function mutations affects but no change in function different protein but has the same function mutation in a dna in a non transcribe region intron selection coefficient measures how fit an organism relative to other genotypes evolution a change in allele frequencies over time what is the effect of population size on random genetic drift with smaller population with an equal allele frequency the loss and fixation will be the same ration and with be less with increasing with a larger population how does selection effect fixation selection will determine the rate of fixation if given equal frequency of alleles unless it is drastic most likely will not be loss but the ratio will decrease based on how large the population size is biodiversity the variety of living organism considered at all levels of organization including the genetic, species, and higher taxonomic levels and the variety of habitats and ecosystems as well as the processes occurring therein ecosystems is a natural unit consisting of all plants, animals and micro-organisms(biotic factors) in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical (abiotic) factors of the environment that together form a recognizable self contained entity 1. List six adaptations of organisms that inhibit deep seas. It is necessary for organisms to make evolutionary adaptations when living in the deep seas due to light availability, and resource scarcity etc… some of those adaptations include 1. Big mouths 2. Lures 3. Invisible bodies 4. Super Sight (seeing red) 5. Bioluminescence 6. Male Parasitism 2. Male Parasitism is an odd adaptation shown by anglerfishes in the deep seas. Explain what male parasitism is. The male angler fish will bite into the female and become attached to her body by his mouth. The two will fuse as one as his gut degenerates and the blood vessels merge he becomes a walk around sperm sac ready to go whenever the female is ready to fertilize her eggs 3. Define Bioluminescence, and why is it useful for organism living in the deep sea Bioluminescence literally means light created by living things. It is useful for a few reason one is simply to see, but some of the subtle uses include attracting a mate, finding prey, avoiding prey by using the light as a distraction, and as well as hide by blending in the glow of the dim light illuminating from deep sea vents 4. What is an estuary Is the area where the water from the rivers meets the sea water from major oceans. The area does not have a single boundary for it moves has high biodiversity in these areas and have a variable range suitable for many types of creatures. 5. What are Kelp forests A cluster of brown algae that grow below the pacific 6. Why are coral reefs said to be the Amazon of the underwater world The biodiversity in these remote areas is higher than that of most tropical rain forest 7. Two common adaptations of fish that usually inhabit coral reed are mimicry and camouflage What is the difference between mimicry and camouflage? The main difference is the mimicry you are impersonating another organisms to avoid prey or to capture prey. Some organisms will impersonate a dangerous fish so they will not be compromised while some impersonate harmless fish to bring food to them. Camouflage you are blending with the environment around you to either avoid prey, or to capture food. what is the reproductive structure of an angiosperm the flower what is a sepal modified leaf what structures make up the female reproduction parts stigma style ovary (carpel) what structure make up the male reproduction parts stamen anther(pollen barrier organ) What are non vascular plants and give an example bryophytes mosses what are the classification of vascular plants tracheophytes ferns evolved seeds naked seeds called gymnospores covered seeds angiosperms how are plants pollinated Plants that are pollinated by animals often are brightly colored and have a strong smell to attract the animal pollinators. Another way plants are pollinated is by the wind. The wind picks up pollen from one plant and blows it onto another. Plants that are pollinated by wind often have long stamens and pistils. Since they do not need to attract animal pollinators, they can be dully colored, unscented, and with small or no petals since no insect needs to land on them. what is a spore mitotically haploid cell in group any taxon under study out group any taxon used to help resolve the polarity of characters which is hypothesized to be less closely related to each taxa under consideration than those taxa and to each other pleisomorphy primitive state apomorphy derived state synapomorphy shared derived autopomorphy single derived state present in the taxa what is the difference between homology and homoplasy? Homology means the similarity due to the common ancestor. Homoplasy, on the other hand, means similarity due to convergent evolution, but independent origins. For instance, take the fin and the caudal fin of tuna and of dolphin; they are similar but have independent histories, and their similarity comes from adaptation to similar environments and functions. This is homoplasy. However, the fin of tuna and bonito are similar because of the common ancestor, and that's homology. sister groups groups derived from from a common ancestor that is not shared with any other group maximum parsimony the tree with the simpliest shortest evolution history is the most parsimonious parsimony is a principle that depends on the concept that the simplest explanation requiring the fewest undocumented assumptions should be preferred over the more complicated hypothesis.