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55 Cards in this Set

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Branch of science concerned with interrelationships of organisms and their environments
ecology
What is a non-living factor that influences living things?
Abiotic factor
What are living factors that influence living thing?
Biotic factors
Name two abiotic factors.
Light intensity
Temperature range
Name two biotic factors
disease
predation
In how many directions does energy flow through ecosystems?
One
Chart the path of energy through the ecosystem
Sun
photosynthetic organisms
herbivores
carnivores
decomposers
Number of organisms an environment can support
carrying capacity
What are some of the limited factors of an environment's carrying capacity?
Energy
Water
Oxygen
Minerals
Ability of ecosystem to recycle dead organisms
What is caused by the finite resources in an environment?
competition among organisms
What is a material or matter cycle?
Molecules and atoms are recycled throughout the biosphere
What are some of the ways that organisms may interact with one another?
producer/consumer
predator/prey
parasite/host
scavenge
decompose
What is the number of different organisms in an environment?
Biodiversity
What are changes in an ecosystem over time?
ecological succession
What is an organism capable of synthesizing its own food from inorganic substances, using light or chemical energy?
autotroph
What is another word for autotroph?
Producer
What is another word for consumer?
heterotroph
What shows the transfer of energy through an ecosystem?
Food chain
What is a food web?
Series of interrelated food chains
How is energy lost in the energy flow of an ecosystem or food chain?
Through heat loss
What are the main parts of the water cycle?
Evaporation
Condensation
Precipitation
Collection
What is the loss of water to the atmosphere by the activities of plants?
transpiration
What type of molecules are used in photosynthesis to form energy-rich organic sugar compounds?
Carbon dioxide
How is carbon dioxide returned to the environment?
Through cell respiration
What is an organism capable of making its own food?
Producer
What is an organism that eats another organism called?
consumer
What is a consumer that eats mostly plant material?
herbivore
What is a consumer that consumes primarily animal material?
carnivore
What is a consumer that eats both plant and animal material?
omnivore
What is a carnivore that kills its food?
Predator
What is a carnivore that feeds on already dead organisms?
Scavenger
What is a symbiotic relationship?
Close living association
What type of symbiosis benefits the parasite at the expense of the host?
parasitism
What type of symbiosis benefits both organism?
mutualism
What type of symbiosis benefits one organism and leaves the other unharmed?
commensalism
What increases the stability of an ecosystem and the chances for greater survival in the face of large changes in the environment?
Biodiversity
What are the first organism to reoccupy an area that has been disturbed by a disruption?
Pioneer organisms
What is a final stable plant community called?
climax community
What is the change of species over time?
Evolution
What is natural selection?
The survival of offspring with certain traits who then reproduce
What is the change of DNA of an offspring to cause different characteristics than its parents?
Mutation
What is variation?
Differences between groups of organisms of one species
Explain overproduction
More offspring are born than can survive
What is competition in the context of natural selection
Struggle for survival; number of ind. in a population tends to be stable due to limited resources
Explain survival of the fittest
Individuals who survive are the ones who are best suited to the environment due to variations
How does reproduction relate to natural seclection?
Variations assist or hinder individuals in survival to reproduction age; pass on genes
What is speciation?
Over time, variations may survive, new species may evolve from common ancestor
When does extinction occur?
When environment changes and the adaptive characteristics of a species are not sufficient to allow survival
Give two sources of variation
1. Recombining of DNA during mitosis and fertilization
2. Mutation
What is gradualism?
Theory that evolution is slow and continuous
What is punctuated equilibrium?
species remain stable for long periods of time and then, due to a large environmental change, change rapidly in response
In what era did unicellular organisms orginate?
Precambrian
In what era did multicellular naimals and fern-like plants originate?
Paleozoic
In what era did birds, mammals, reptiles, and flowering plants originate?
Mesozoic
In what era did radiation of birds, mammals, reptiles, and flowering plants occur?
Cenozoic