Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. adaptation
not the same as acclimatization

Is a behavioral or inherited trait that increases an organism’s chance for survival
Cloths, living in a structure, nocturnal, diurnal
o Inherited

Fur, claws, size, gills, …
o Make you better suited for your niche
Habitat and your role (where you live &what you do)
2. Need does not produce adapation it produces selective pressures
it may result in speciation over time
3. Types of adaptation
- morphological = by looks(stick bug looks like stick)
-Behavioral (bird nests)
-Physiological = by body function(poison spider webs, Skunk spray)
4. Natural selection occurs at which level?
Adaptaion occurs at which level?
Natural selection occurs at which level? - INDIVIDUAL
Adaptaion occurs at which level? POPULATION
Cryptic coloration and warning coloration
CRYPTIC - blend into environment (chameleon,tiger stripes)
WARNING (aposematic) coloration+ - to scare predators and appear non-edible- fire bellied toad
BATESIAN - palatable and harmless species mimic halmful and poisonous - fools the predators Ex. milk snals mimic poisonous coral snakes
MULLERIAN - two unpalatable species that are mimics of each other with conspicuous warning coloration (poison frogs)
BERGMANN's RULE (adaptaion)
as temp increases body decreases (the hotter it is the smaller the animals - easier to cool off)
The founder effect is an evolutionary phenomenon. Founder effects arise when an isolated environment is invaded by only a few members of a species, which then multiply rapidly. In extreme cases, founder effects may lead to the speciation and subsequent evolution of new species. A small population of insects on an island are predominantly colored yellow, and only a few are red.

A freak storm destroys most of the insects indiscriminately. This puts the population through a bottleneck.

Just by chance, a high proportion of the survivors happen to have the allele for red coloring with the result that when the population size recovers, it is mainly composed of their red winged descendants.
on Small ISLANDS
selective pressure of varied habitats
Small ISLANDS multiple invasions
Adaptive radiation describes the rapid speciation of a single or a few species to fill many ecological niches. This is an evolutionary process driven by mutation and natural selection.
Honecreepers on different hawaiian islans, Darwin's finches
There are three basic types
General adaptation. A species that develops a radically new ability can reach new parts of its environment. An example of general adaptation is bird flight.
Environmental change. A species that can, in contrast to the other species in the ecosystem, successfully survive in a radically changed environment will probably branch into new species that cover the new ecological niches created by the environmental change. An example of adaptive radiation as the result of an environmental change is the rapid spread and development of mammalian species after the extinction of the dinosaurs.
Archipelagoes. Isolated ecosystems, such as islands and mountain areas, can be colonized by a new species which upon establishing itself undergoes rapid divergent evolution. Darwin's finches are examples of adaptive radiation occurring in an archipelago
Small islands and large islans
Islands closer to the mainland are more likely to receive immigrants from the mainland than those further away from the mainland. The equilibrium number of an island close to Africa is going to be larger than that of one found in the mid-Atlantic. This is the distance effect. The size effect reflects a long known realtionship between island size and species diversity. On smaller islands that chance of extinction is greater than on larger ones. Thus larger islands can hold more species than smaller ones. The play between these two factors can be used to establish how many species an island can hold at equilibrium.
In population genetics, a cline is a gradual change of a character or feature (phenotype) in a species over a geographical area, often as a result of environmental heterogeneity. The change in phenotype does not result in different species as long as the geographically spread populations can interbreed with one another. RING SPECIES - each species can interbreed witht he next section but not with the beginning of the ring - different north pole gulls
ENDEMIC SPECIES (adaptaion section)
In ecology, an organism being "endemic" means exclusively native to a place or biota. It is in contrast to being cosmopolitan and to any one of several terms meaning "not native" (e.g., adventive, exotic, alien, introduced, naturalized, non-native). See endemic (ecology).
distribution areas represent the remnants of originally larger distribution ranges that have been reduced due to environmental changes

Used to be all over and now just remains of them
species emigrate to a new area, population gets divided (2 mountain ridges, for ex) and they show differnet adapations due to different conditions. The new species and subspecies evolve - NEOENDEMIC
Joel Asaph Allen in 1877. It states that endotherms (warm blooded animals) from colder climates usually have shorter limbs than the equivalent animals from warmer climates.