Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/72

Click to flip

72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Benthos
a mode of life in aquatic ecosystems – attached to or resting on bottom, 3 subcategories include epifauna, periphyton, and infauna
Plankton
mode of life in aquatic systems – floating, weak swimmers, 2 subcategories are phytoplankton and zooplankton
Nekton
mode of life in aquatic ecosystems – swimming orgs, go where they want (e.g. fish, turtles, frogs, squid, seals, octopus)
Neuston
mode of life in aquatic systems – rest or swim on surface
Epipelagic
top layer of ocean, where light penetrates and photosynthesis may be performed
Mesopelagic
“twilight zone,” gets some sunlight but not enough to sustain photosynthesis
Bathypelagic
cold, deep, no sunlight, high pressure
Abyssopelagic
– the deep sea
Salinity
Amount of salt in parts per thousand
Neritic
zone in ocean zonation – from littoral to continental shelf
Oceanic
zone in ocean zonation – beyond continental shelf
dimictic
– lakes that have seasonal mixing twice a year
meromictic
lakes that have no mixing, permanently stratified
oligotrophic
lakes that have low nutrients, also, deep, sandy or gravel bottom, low plant growth, low decomposition at bottom (plenty of O2)
eutrophic
lakes that are nutrient rich, also shallow, muddy, high plant growth, summer stratified, lots of decomposition (depletes O2)
epilimnion
lentic systems – surface water = warmer, higher O2 content because of wind mixing, more abundant floral community, nutrients quickly depleted by algae
metalimnion
lentic systems – zone of transition, thermocline occurs, temperature and density changes rapidly with depth
hypolimnion
– lentic systems – water 4° C, low O2 content b/c more aerobic bacteria breaking down organic matter
thermocline
lentic systems, layerr of water that has a rapid temperature gradient and separates the warm upper water from the cold lower water
compensation point
where photosynthesis just offsets respiration
Littoral Zone
zone in lentic zonation – extends away from shore to limit of rooted plants
→shallow water around shore, light penetrates to bottom, rooted plants, high diversity, subzones of vegetation = emergent, floating, submergent
Emergent
lentic systems - plants that grow out of the water but may have roots in the water
Floating
lentic systems – plants that float on or above surface of water
Submergent
plants that grow under the water
limnetic
– zone in lentic zonation – extends to the depth of effective light penetration, ends at compensation point, open water area where light can still penetrate
profundal
zone in lentic zonation – extends below the depth of light penetration where photosynthesis cannot occur
→bottom and deep water region, fewer plankton and no nueston, this level is absent in ponds
Ecotone
transition between 2 different ecosystems, change might be abrupt or there might be a transition zone, typically these are areas of greater diversity
turbidity
cloudiness of water, amount of particulate matter
alkalinity
ease with which a body of water can buffer pH
ecoregion
A large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities that, share a majority of species and
ecological dynamics and environmental conditions – they are biome subdivisions originally developed for resource managers; major ecosystems that result from predictable patterns of climate as influenced by latitude, global position, and altitude
zonation
the distribution of organisms into different biogeographic zones in a given system or type of system, can be vertical (ex. moisture gradient) or horizontal (ex. altitude gradient)
stratification
– a layering in one location (ex. emergent trees to lower canopy trees to understory)
phanerophytes
perennial buds carried well up in the air (more than 10in off ground) and exposed to varying climatic conditions (e.g. trees, tall shrubs)
chamaeophytes
perennial shoots or buds on the surface of ground to about 10 inches off ground, these buds can be protected by fallen leaves and snow (e.g. low shrubs)
hemicryptophytes
perennial buds at the surface of ground where they are protected by soil and leaves (e.g. grasses, etc.)
cryptophytes
– perennial buds buried in ground, as bulb or rhizome, where they are protected from freezing and drying
therophytes
– annuals, complete life cycle from seed to seed again in one season, surviving unfavorable periods as seeds, will grow when conditions are favorable
epifauna
subcategory under benthos – living on bottom (e.g. crabs, scallops)
periphyton
– subcategory under benthos – attach to stems and leaves of rooted plants
infauna
subcategory under benthos – buried in sediment (e.g. clams, worms
phytoplankton
photosynthesizing plankton
zooplankton
herbivorous and carnivorous plankton
decomposer
– trophic mode – break down organic matter to obtain energy, includes many insects, bacteria, and fungi
photosynthesizer
trophic mode – primary producers, derive energy from sunlight
grazer
trophic mode aquatic systems – eat living plant material (e.g. insects, sea urchins)
deposit feeder
trophic mode aquatic systems – eat organic material on bottom (e.g. worms, some snails and clams
filter feeder
trophic mode aquatic – remove food from water (e.g. clams, mussels, baleen whales)
biome
major regional or global community, such as a grassland or desert, characterized chiefly by the dominant forms of plant life and the prevailing climate.
rain shadow
high mountain ranges force air upward, rises, cools, and drops rain on first side of mountain
lake effect
dry air warms over land, when gets over lake it picks up moisture, it rises, cools, and then rains or snows, this is why Buffalo, NY gets so much snow, the Great Lakes!
maritime climate
climate on or near coast, less extreme than that of inland areas, temperatures are moderated by the ocean
continental climate
climate of inland areas, more extreme than maritime climates
monsoon
summer heat causes air masses to rise, moist air sucked off ocean to replace air, air rises and cools and dumps a lot of rain
El Niño
weather phenomenon caused by warmer water off the West coast of the Americas, changes what is normally wet and dry, makes certain areas very wet or very dry
aspect
the direction that a tree or mountainside is facing, on a south-facing slope, the aspect would be south
adiabatic cooling
warm air rises, expands, and cools, dropping rain
atmospheric blanket
the denser lower atmosphere that has more moisture to hold in heat and it bounces back much of the heat radiated by earth, higher altitudes cool rapidly at night because there is no atmospheric blanket to keep in the radiant heat
reradiation
solar energy enters earth and some of it is reradiated back out by earth, only some of that reradiated energy escapes into space, most is absorbed by stratospheric CO2
Coriolis force
– this is the force which causes winds in N. hemisphere to deflect right and in S. hemisphere to deflect left – it is because the surface of the rotating earth moves faster at the equator than it does near the poles
• Conduction
o Heat transfer between bodies in direct contact
• Sand + body
convection
o Transfer of heat between a solid and a moving fluid (air or water)
Radiation
o Transfer of heat between objects without contact
o Fire/Sun + body
Evaporation
o Heat lost as water evaporates
o Sweat
Homeotherms
maintain a constant body temperature
Poikilotherms
Tb varies with environmental Temperature
Allen’s rule
Endothermic species from colder climates will have shorter appendages, ears, etc
Bergman’s Rule
o Endothermic individuals will be bigger in colder climates
• Decrease Surface area in terms of volume
Heterotherms
Some Endotherms do not always maintain a constant Body Temperature
Torpor
Daily hibernation - bats, hummingbirds
Hibernation
Lower body temperature to match environemental temperature
Estivation
Hibernation in hot temperatures
MAJOR CONCLUSION
No moose in florida, no Lizards in Maine