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24 Cards in this Set

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Symbiotic Relationship
A Relationship that is Mutually Benificial (+,+)
How can we tell if organisms are the same or different species?
- reproductive isolation
prezygotic = donkey + horse
postzygotic = behavioral
- if they can reproduce and produce viable, fertile offspring
Biological definition of species
They can reproduce and produce viable fertile offspring. This definition is not good for most organisms - they reproduce asexually
Census
Count EVERYBODY
Survey
Count representitive samples of population
Lincoln-Peterson Index
= capture-recaputure

~N=nM/R

n=total individs we caught 2nd time
M=marked (1st time)
R=recaptured
Where is DNA contained?
In chromosomes - matched pairs (homologous chromosomes).
Allele
alternate form of a gene
Locus
the position an allele occupies on a chromosome. members of the pair of alleles occupy the same locus on homologous chromosomes.
alleles occupying the same locus on homologous chromosomes are the same...
homozygous
alleles occupying the same locus on homologous chromosomes are different...
heterozygous
Incomplete dominance
If teh physical expressio of the heterozygous individual is iintermediate between those
Total collection of genes across all individuals in the population
gene pool
Phenotypic plasticity
the ability of a genotype to give rise to a range of phenotypic expressions under different environmental conditions
the ability of a genotype to give rise to a range of phenotypic expressions under different environmental conditions
phenotypic plasticity
Mutations
heritable changes in a gene or chromosome.
Point mutation
occurs in just one nucleotide in a single gene
importance of gene mutation
add variation to the gene pool
Example of a single gene mutation
Albinism in mice. Recessive.
2 Ways a change in chromosome number can arise
1. the complete or partial duplication of a chromosome

2. the deletion of one or more chromosomes
Asexual reproduction
The production of offspring by a single parent, without the participation of egg and sperm. Takes many forms but in all cases creates offspring that are genetically identicle to the parent.
Evolution
A change in the gene frequencies within a population (or species) over time.
Hardy-Weinberg principle
No matter how many generations forward we calculate, the frequency of each gene will remain constant unless acted upon by other agents.
Conditions of Hardy-Weinberg
1. mating is random
2. mutations do not occur
3. populatin is large, so changes by change in gene frequencies are insignificant (50-500)
4. natural selection does not occur
5. migrations do not occur