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### 89 Cards in this Set

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 individual can reproduce population all the individuals that reproduce together how many populations exist in a species can be many environment everything a population uses, that affects the population, and everything the population affects what are the outcomes of interactions in population ecology changes in the distribution and abundance of the organism How do we find out about distribution and abundance? Determine how many individuals of a particular species are in a particular location. What are population dynamics? describes the processes taht change the number of individuals in a population N(t) population size at time t dN(t)/dt each individuals contribution to the population growth dN(t)/dt=rN(t) r is the intrinsic rate of increase assuming each individuals contribution to population growth in constant Is population growth exponential? Yes, except that it is usually limited. K carrying capacity of the population (r-r/K)N each individuals contribution to population growth dN(t)/dt=r(1-N/K)(N(t)) Logistic population growth r strategy population growth rapid development; early single reproduction; short life span; good dispersal ability; disturbed habitats. ephasizes rapid population growth (ex. argentine ant) k strategy population growth slow development, late reproduction, long lifespan, poor dispersal, non disturbed habitats. limited by population carrying capacity (ex. red harvester ant, desert species) In a population gowing logistically how do all individuals contribute to growth? equally What is demograhpy? the study of population growth In a real population, how does an individuals contribution to growth vary? varies depending on their life history life history the manner in which an organism progresses from birth, reproductive period, to death Age determines an orgnisms probability of survival, mortality, fertility, and probability of reproduction life table keeps track of the effects of age on population growth how is the birth rate defined Birth rate (t)= integral (# of births from prnt age x)dx m(x) (# of indv. age x)(# of births/indv. age x) l(x) (number of births x yrs ago)(fraction surviving to age x) To track population growth must know number of indv of each age, birth rate, survival rate Birth rate (t)=integral (B(t-x) l(x) m(x)) dx stupid equation What does a frequency distribution show? The numbers or proportion, or frequency in each category of some measure. Are populations always stable? No What do changes in population growth lead to? Changes in age distribution. What effects variability of live births in golden tamarinds? Only body mass NOT - infants from previous season, age of mother, number of males in group, number of helpers, or the interbreeding coeff environment includes habitat, biotic and abiotic factors, organisms are part of their own envrironments - modify their environments through behavior niche a populations niche is a way of describing all of the resources it uses How do changes environments affect population size? They can increase or decrease size. ex: rainfall affects food supply, affects types of species that are most fit What interactions between populations affect population dynamics? Competition, predation, mutualism, etc Competition must be a limited resource for this to occur density dependence when individuals within a population compete for a limited resource When does competition between species occur? when two niches overlap causes a loss in growth for one population What are the Lotka-Volterra derived from? Come from the logistic equation include the effect of the competing species on each other What is the factor alpha_12 the intensity of competition, measure empirically the effect of species 2 on species 1 competition is thus described as a pair of equations What do ecological processes on the time scale of individuals drive? evolutionary processes over generations What are the 3 requirements for natural selection? - variation in a trait - heretitability of traits - diff reproductive success due to traits What does differential reproductive success depend on? ecological processes Predation when one species benefits at the detriment of the other What do the parameters mean in the HIV predation model? T,s,p,k,V,T*,delta,c T - # uninfected T-cells s - rate of prod of new uninf. T cells p - rate of prod of T cells from exist ones k - rate of inf of T cells by virus V - # of virions T* - # inf T cells delta - rate inf cells die c - rate immune system clears virus (unknown) What are some benefits of the HIV model? Shows virus active even when viral load not changing. Allowed interpretation of results of drug treatment. Help determine time course for treatments. Mutualism both populations benefit What are some benefits of mutualism: disperse seeds, pollinate flowers, defend against herbivores, parasite adn predators, gather nutrients in short supply, feed adn digest, photosynthesize adn respire Some examples of mutualism: - ants that clear all plants except host plant - ants live inside acacias and ward off herbivores in exchange for awesoem housing community populations together form a community What do food webs link? populations in communities Primary productivity the rate at which biomass is produced per unit area by plants biomass mass of organisms per unit area of ground Describe Eltons pyramid Number of species at top has small number of individuals, large amount of biomass trophic web maps energy flow from producers to consumers (same as food web) succession ecological interactions change communities overtime; pioneer plants -> alders -> transition stage -> spruce forest ecosystem community plus abiotic environment, may contain many connected communities Does primary productivity vary among ecosystems? Yes, (ex. higher in in forest than desert) What is secondary productivity? herbivores, affected by primary productivity Is energy lost in the transfer from one level to another in the food web? yes What is a nutrient cycle? The flow of nutrients through different ecosystems. What is most living matter comprised of? Water How does seasonal change and climate affect nutrient cycling? (name on major factor) climate affects how much and how fast water moves, which is important to nutrient cycles (ice doesnt help nutrients flow) Describe the phosphorus cycle: input of particulaate and dissolved P in rivers -> P particles in down-welling water -> mineralization -> P dissolved in up-welling water particles can be lost to sediment What are the main biogeochemical cycles P, N, S, C How are nutrient levels and energy flow linked? Nutrient availability limits productivity. What are some limits to primary productivity. solar radiation, carbon dioxide, water, soil nutruents, temperature, photosynthesis, nutrients Where are N,S,P mostly N - mostly in atmosphere S - mostly in atmosphere, soil P - mostly in sediment How do nutrient levels in the soil reflect soil age? new soil - (300-1200 yrs) - P levels identical to that in lava intermediate - (20 - 150,000) - can absorb P, most chemically active older soil - (1.4 - 4.1) - most of P leached out, most biologically active mineral shave been lost due to weathering and leaching What factors are generally limiting to growth in different types of soil? N - limits growth in young soil P - limits growth in old soil both - limit productivity in intermediate sites What nutrients are transported in the atmosphere? P, Ca, K Is any ecosystem on earth isolated? No What is regional change driven by? human activity Why are all ecosystems influed by global change in climate? Because climate change affects the the flow of nutrients and energy. Describe the greenhouse effect: incomign light warms earth -> emits heat as infrared -> trapped by water vapor, CO2, methane, nitrous oxide and aerosal particles What human activity increases the amounts of CO2, methane, nitrous oxide, and aerosal particles. CO2 - burning of fossil fuels methane - organic decay, drilling, mining nitrous oxide - fertilizer aerosal particles - burning fossil fuel From what sources can data on temperature changes over time be derived? Tree rings, extent of glaciation, changes in coral reefs, sunspot activity, volcanism What is the current level of CO2 in the atmosphere? 370 ppm How much will the earth warm in this century? 1.5 - 6 degrees What are some consequences of global warming? - heat stress (elderly and urban poor) - heat on tourist industry - crops, livestock - increased electrical demand to control indoor temperature - more intense precipitation -> floods, landslides, avalanches, erosion - changes in ecological communities and diversity What are the currents trends for genera with global warming? The fast growing genera are increasing, and the slow growing genera are decreasing. How does CO2 increase affect plants. Increases productivity, (esp C3 plants), rubisco prevented from acting as oxygenase, photosyn more efficient How will this fast growth affect old growth, subcanopy species with denser wood? This will dimish the slow growers, because fast growers can take over. How will this affect CO2 levels. Diminish forests ability to act as CO2 sinks, because less old growth. How does global warming affect temperature besides direct warming? changes wind patterns -> changes currents -> changes temperatures How does changing ocean temperature impact global warming? releases methane by thawing, a greenhouse gas Name two ways humans cause extinction? Get rid of habitats Introduce invasive species What is conservation biology? science behind attempts to alleviate the harm done by habitat loss, invasive species, global climate change, and other human disturbance What is a corridor? A way provided for animals to move to both portions of a fragmented habitat. Reduces risk of extinction - badger path under highway