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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Living Environment.
Nonliving Environment.
ex. Water, Moisture, nutrients, Sunlight, Temperature.
Ecological System
Interaction of biotic and abiotic environments so that a flow of energy leads to defined biotic structures and cycling of material between living and nonliving.
First unit in ecological hierarchy that is complete. Has all components (biotic/abiotic) necessary for survival.
Groups of individuals of any one kind of organism.
All biotic populations occupying a given area.
Heterogenous area of interacting ecosystem ex. watershed
Large regional/subcontinental system.
Largest and most self sufficient. All living organisms of earth interacting w/physical environment.
Energy sources
Sun, wind, rain, water flow, fossil fuel.
3 basic interactions
1. Flow of energy (one way)
2. Community
3. Cycling of material
Sun, other(wind, rain water flow fossil fuel), immigration, organic material
Emmigration, organic material, heat, pollutants
Study of natural environment including the relationships of organisms to one another and to their surroundings.
Ecological hierarchy
atoms, molecules, cells, tissue, organs, organ system, organism, populations, community, ecosystem, landscape, biomes, ecosphere.
Tropic meaning
Upper Trophic Level
Self nourishment. "Green belt" of chlorophyll containing plants (plants, algae).
Lower Trophic Level
Other nourishment. "Brown belt" of soil, sediment, decaying matter, roots.
Six Components of Ecosystem
1. Inorganic material
2. Organic material
3. Air, water
4. Producers
5. Phagotrophs
6. Saprotrophis decomposers(bacteria fungi)
Organic matter involved in decomposition of dead organisms.
3 Products of Decomposition
1. POM (particulate organic matter).
2. DOM (dissolved organic matter).
3. VOM (volitile organic matter) ex. fragance of flowers.
series of gradients
ex. temperature, moisture, depth
Mountian Ecosystem
Tundra, Northern conifer forest, Pigmy conifer forest, Grassland, Desert.
Photosyn. of sea ecosystem
Littoral, limnetic, profundal
Contains rooted floating emergent vegetation along the shore of a lake P/R>1
Open water of lake beyond the litterol zone P/R>1
Profundal Zone
Deep water area of lake. Not enough sunlight P/R<1
Man-made ecosystem
Producers in Pond Ecosystem
1. Marophytes-grow in shallow water rooed or large floating plants.
2. Phytoplankton-small floating plants, found throughout pound.
Consumers of pond ecosystem
1. Zooplankton (animal plankton)
2. Benthos (bottom dwellers)
Temperature sea ecosystem.
1. Eplimnion
2. Thermocline
3. Hypolimnion
Warmer, oxygen rich upper part of a lake when thermally stratified during summer.
Layer of water in a thermally stratifed lake where temperature profile changes rapidly relative to the body of water as a whole.
Cold, oxygen poor bottom part of a lake.
Agroecosystem 1 differences between natural ecosystem.
1. Auxiliary energy under human control. ex. human, animal labor, fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation water, fuel powered machinary.
2. Diversity of animal reduced to amxiums yield of specific crop.
Agroecosystem 2 differences between natural ecosystem.
2. Diversity of animal reduced to amxiums yield of specific crop.
Agroecosystem 3 differences between natural ecosystem.
3. Dominant crop under artifical selection
Negative sides of agroecosystem
soil erosion, pollution from pesticides, fertilizer runoff, high cost of suel subsideries, reduced biodiversity, vulnerability to weather changes and pests.
Three types of agroecosystems
1. Pre-industrial agricultural
2. Industrical/conventional agriculture.
3. Alternative agriculture
Pre-industrial agricultural
Self-sufficient labor intensive, human and animal labor provide energy subsidery, no surplus for export ex. Asia, Africa, America.
Industrical/conventional agriculture.
Machines, fossil fuel fertilizers, insecticides, machines. crop production enhanced more surplus for export. Ex. More developed countries
Alternative agriculture
Low input sustaining agriculture. Emphasis on sustaining crop yield and profits while reducing inputs of fossil fuel, pesticides and fertilizer subsideries.
Types of Pre-industrial
1. pastoralism-herding cattle
2. Shifting agriculture-
3. Flood irrigation.
Shifting agriculture
patch of forest cut, crops cultivated for a few years, then land abondoned to be rejuvinated by forest.
Dicarboxylic acid cycle
bright light, high temp, not inhibited by high Oxygen concent., deserts, little photorespiration
Pentose phosphate Calvin Cycle
moderate light and temperature, inhibited by high oxygen concentration, forests, more numerous
Conversion of organic nitrogen to ammonia
Formation of nitrate from ammonia
Nitromonous bacteria
Convert ammonia to nitrite