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115 Cards in this Set

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What is a biome
Large scale communities generally defined by plant assembalages
Why study climatic patterns
To understand enviornmental factors on animals, determine paramiters which servival is possible
What happens to survival rates when optima goes down
They are lower
What are two major abiotic factors effecting community classification
water and tempature
Tempature is largley dependent on
avaliable light tempature increaesd speed of chemical reactions physological rates as it increaeses
Precipitation is dependent on
available water
Tempature and precipitation are the limiting factors in what
plant growth
Tempature and moisture are determined by four factors what are they
1.) solar radiation
2.) Air/wind circulation
3.) Land masses
4.) Ocean currents
What happens with solar radiation at 0 degrees
more then 2X the difference between polar regions and the equator
What are the reasons for the radiation difference 3
1.) Angle of incidence changes and delutes the light angle wavelengths of light hitting serfice of earth comming streight down at the equator and spread a short distance.
2.) More atmosphere and more particles for light to travel through
tilt and rotation of the earth
What is a biome
large scale communities generally defined by plant assemblages
Why study climatic patterns
to understand environmental factors on animals, determine parameters which survival is possible
what happens to survival rates as optima goes down
lower as optima goes down.
What are two major abiotic factors effecting community classifiaction
Two major abiotic factors affecting community classification: water & temperature
What is tempature largley dependedent on
dependent on available light – temperature increased speed of chemical reactions/physiological rates as it increases
Precipitation is dependent on
is dependent on available water
Tempature and precipitation are limiting facors to what
limiting factors for plant growth
tempature moisture primarly determined by
1. Solar radiation
2. Air/Wind circulation
3. Land Masses
4. Ocean currents
Explain how solar radiation varies with latitude 3 reasons for this
Reasons for difference:
1. Angle of incidence changes and dilutes light, Angle wavelengths of light hitting surface of earth – coming straight down at equator and spread over shorter distance

2. More atmosphere and particles for light to travel through

3. Tilt/rotation of earth  seasonality
Explain sunrise and sun set
 red, yellow, orange in the sky, particles reflect light, absorb only certain wavelengths – red: longest wavelengths
R O Y G B I V: Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet --colors of rainbow
dust at horizon filter out short wavelengths
Explain tilt rotation in northern hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere: summer has solar equator, winter on dark side of earth a lot more/longer nights
solar radiation equates with
equates with temperature
What happens to air near the equater
heats quickly – hot air rises, differential air at earth’s surface – as air moves up, it displaces other air
Explain convection cells
circular pattern from air rising winds on surface are calm, air cools then sinks to earth’s surface, predictable
convection cells equal what
Hadley cells
what are the names of the cells at 30 60 and 90 degrees
90° (Polar) 60° (Ferrel) 30° (Hadley) 0° (Hadley) 30° (Ferrel) 60° (Polar) 90°
What is the primary movement of air at 0 30 and 60 degrees
Primary movement at 0°, 30°, 60° is upward – more wind between these
whats a doldrum
Doldrum – Tropical upwelling of air, no movement while sailing, no vertical air flow
whats the hoarse latitudes
Horse latitudes – Boats couldn’t move through doldrums, had to dump horses overboard to lighted the boat
what is the speed at the equator
Relative speed on equator 25,000 mi/day, 1000mph
what is the speed at the north pole
North Pole 0 mi/day, 0mph
Hows does the air move in the northern hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere – northern air moving fast relative to slow earth
how does air move in the southern hemisphire
southern moves slow relative to fast earth)
Explain why hot air is better than cool air
Hot air holds more moisture, vertical flow of air changes amount of moisture being held –lots of rain, ideal vegetation
what happens to ocean currents dragged by wind
circular flow in the ocean
what way are the ocean currents going in the northern hemesphire
– N. Hemisphere: clockwise
what way are the ocean currents going in the southern hemesphire
S. Hemisphere: counterclockwise
The oceans in the western U.S. tend to be
cold water
The oceans in the eastern U.S. tend to be
Eastern US gets warm water
Winds moving in different directions at the equatorial lines cause
Winds moving in different directions at equatorial lines cause circular movement in the ocean
What happens to air preasure as you move up in latitude
Air pressure decreases as you move higher – less atmosphere pressing down, air expands
what happens to air preasure as you move down in latitude
Air compresses as you move down – more heat/molecular motion
what is bends
Bends – little bubbles become larger in body if coming up from the ocean too fast
what does air do as it rises
Air cools as it rises, expands, less molecular movement, less motion = less heat
Whats adiabiotic cooling
Adiabatic cooling – passive cooling due to expansion of warm air without loss of total heat content, as air rises
What is adibiatic heating
Adiabatic heating – passive heating due to compression of cool air – down welling of air
whats the adiabatic lapse rate
Adiabatic lapse rate – rate at which air in a closed system closes
dry air: 10° C/km of altitude, wet air: 6° C/km of altitude
*moisture holds energy
Whats hopkins bioclamatic law
Hopkins Bioclimatic Law – cooling is similar between altitude and latitude
Altitude: cools 3° F/1000ft
Latitude: cools 3° F/100mi (100 mi away from equator)
hotter air holds more
moisture, can’t hold moisture as it cools
In the northern hemesphire the west side is
West side of continent –cooler in N. Hemisphere
Ocean currents move counterclockwise in S. Hemesphire
Ocean currents move counterclockwise in S. Hemisphere – mountains & coastal environment, rain shadow effect
Whats Maritime
Maritime – buffer for air change with moist air and ocean
Water has a high specific heat explain
Water has high specific heat – amount of heat energy to change a degree in temperature
explain tempature on east coast
Lots of moisture in air – temp doesn’t change quickly (humid back east at night – doesn’t vary in temperature much between day and night)
Explain rain shadow effect
Rain Shadow Effect – air forced up mountain, cools

winds from ocean  across central valley  up foothills  adiabatic cooling up the mountain causing rain  wind goes over crest of mountain causing adiabatic heating  moves down great basin on other side of mountain – relatively dry air, air compressing as it moves down the mountain, heats up
What are the determinants of the aquatic enviornment
1. Light
2. Temperature
3. Oxygen
4. Pressure (as you move down in depth)
what is the littoral zone
Littoral zone – rich in nutrients – runoff from land, tide pools, a lot of life
What is the neritic zone
Neritic zone – light energy, a lot of life, chemical reactions faster, repro/photosynthesis faster
What is the benthos
Benthos – detritus, bottom region
Why are coral reefs good
Coral reefs – one of richest ecosystems, light dependent
Whats the oceanic zone
Oceanic zone – open water
What are brackish systems
Brackish systems – fresh/salt water mix, fresh water dumps into marine system, shallow, muddy
whats Lotic
flowing aquatic environment, springs, streams, rivers
whats lentic
Lentic – Non-flowing aquatic environment, ponds, lakes, wetlands
whats a 1st order stream
1st order – small headwater stream without tributary
whats a second order stream
2nd order – two 1st order streams join
whats a third order stream
3rd order – two 2nd orders join
To increase in order a stream must
To increase in order, a stream must be joined by a stream of the same kind
one 1st order and one 2nd order = 2nd order stream
Whats Hypolimnion- tropholytic
below compensation point, have to break things down – not a lot of photosynthesis, use of oxygen great, production of oxygen poor
what happens in the winter to a body of water
detrital accumulation, many things die, fall to bottom, rich nutrients
What happens to water in the spring?
turnover –water, nutrients, explosion of life, organic richness
What happens to water in the summer
Oxygen down, stagnate, thermocline
whats abiotic factors
temperature, pH, humidity, salinity, sunlight, other than living organisms
whats biotic factors
by living organisms, competition, predation, disease
Whats a niche
Niches – what an organism does, Grinnell (1917) coined term, actively measured it
whats a fundimental niche
Fundamental niche – abiotic influences only, idealized or theoretical, based on tolerances
whats a realized niche
Realized niche – determined by both abiotic and biotic factors, actual, real-life situation
whats natural selection
Natural selection – position/status of an organism within a community and ecosystem from organism’s structural adaptations, physiological responses and specific behavior (inherited and/or learned), force that shapes niche, differential reproduction of an individual that differs by one or more genetic trait(s), based on reproduction – surviving without reproduction is not natural selection
whats eveloution
Evolution – genetic change over time
whats adaptation
Adaptation – genetic change that improves function
whats fitness
pass on maximum number of genes to next generation
whats artifical selection
Artificial selection – one species of dogs, horses, cattle, humans –choose certain traits, fruits/vegetables, breed of dog, etc.
whats natural selection example
Natural selection – peppered moth example, warfarin resistance in rats, bacterial resistance to medicine
In order for natural selection to occur you must have
Natural selection:
Variation
Heritable
Differential reproduction
whats industrial melanism
Industrial melanism – peppered moth (Biston betularia), Bacterial resistance to medicine, warfarin (poison to kill) resistance in rats
Whats Darwin's fitness
– pass on as many genes in a lifetime, measure of total young produced per year, find individual with most young, use as denominator for measure to define fitness – ex. 14 young/14 = 1.0, 11young/14 = .8
Explain ring species
distribution circular around some feature that is a barrier, along the way adjacent populations can breed but end populations can no longer interbreed, change in morphology, greater genetic distance (Change in habitat, moisture tolerance, color patterns may be camouflage from predators)
Human population had greatest impacts in
– greatest impacts in natural resources – technological advances, hunting, fire, agriculture, human lineage 2-6 million years, rate of advancement
Earth 4-8 billion years old
Mammalian Megafauna extinction 3 causes
Mammalian megafauna extinctions – large mammals extinction correlates with humans
Problems with water
limited –decrease loss, avoiding desiccation, increasing gain of water
too much – decrease gain, increase loss of water
67% of the earths surface is covered in what
water
Hydration spheres density is
hydration spheres, density greatest about 4°C, high specific heat
Oxyogen
high electro-negativity, holds more electrons
hydrogen bonds form when
form as H2O molecules stick together
Why don't lakes freeze in the winter
lakes don’t completely freeze, ice floats and insulates lakes below, density causes water to sink
Whats specific heat
Specific heat - amount of energy required to change something
Whats high specific heat
High specific heat – keeps land masses warm, less fluctuation
whats biomass
Biomass – standing crop of an organism, how many trees, how many grams, how much grass, greatest biomass of salamanders is in Appelation Mountains
Whats GPP
Gross Primary Production (GPP) – amount of energy fixed in photosynthesis
whats NPP
Net Primary Production (NPP) – energy fixed from energy coming in but some is lost – lost in maintaining the plant, not all in energy production, remainder is fixed into plant tissues, what is captured by photosensitive pigments
NPP = (B1 + B0) + L + G (L = loss by death of plants, G = biomass lost to consumers)
Most energy comes in at the
- most energy comes in at equator
Light captured by several
light captured by several organisms NPP
Most light is lost when
- most lost – atmosphere, reflects from plant
What is the percent in converting energy
- 38-40% efficiency in converting energy
tropical rainforest system are
Tropical rainforests – most productive system
swamps and marshes are
Swamps/Marshes – incredibly productive, wetlands
upwelling zones are
Upwelling zones – massive amounts of nutrients from benthos
algal beds are
Algal beds and reefs – shallow, warm
estuaries are
Estuaries – very productive
whats a Poikilotherm
Poikilotherm – body temperature fluctuates with environment
Whats a Homeotherm
Homeotherm – body temperature held constant across range of environmental temperatures
Whats an Ectotherm
Ectotherm – majority of body heat derived from environment
Whats a endotherm
Endotherm – majority of body heat from own metabolism
Whats a heterotherm
Heterotherm – animals that are facultatively endothermic homeotherms able to generate some heat internally, dinosaurs generate or maintain heat and not enough body surface to disperse heat, also tuna, swordfish, crocodiles
why would you want to move to land
moving onto land – resources available, less competitors, plants move to land then herbivores