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48 Cards in this Set

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Which of the following characters distinguish echinoderms from chordates?
Pentameral vs. bilateral symmetry in adults
Sea stars have
a water vascular system which they use for locomotion and gas exchange.
an eversible stomach which can be inserted between the valves of their molluscan prey, the soft parts of which are then digested in situ.
ciliated larvae that are bilaterally symmetric.
Echinoderms are divided into two principal groups (subphyla). Of these, the Pelmetozoa are mostly extinct, being represented by living crinoids (sea lilies and feather stars). The Eleutherozoa include sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers, sea stars and brittle stars.
Echinoderms are divided into two principal groups (subphyla). Of these, the Pelmetozoa are mostly extinct, being represented by living crinoids (sea lilies and feather stars). The Eleutherozoa include sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers, sea stars and brittle stars.
The hemichordate character suggesting chordate affinities is presence of pharyngeal gill slits that facillitate gas exchange.
The hemichordate character suggesting chordate affinities is presence of pharyngeal gill slits that facillitate gas exchange.
Vertebrate trunk muscles are arranged in ">-"shaped bundles called myomeres that attach to sheets of connective tissue, called myocommata. The latter, in turn, are anchored to the
vertebral column
Label the organs marked a. - f. in accompanying figure of an archetypal vertebrate.
a. spinal cord (dorsal nerve cord); b. notochord; c. pharynx; d. pharyngeal gill slits; e. heart; f. lung.
Which of the following statements regarding vertebrate gills are correct?
the gill arches of primitive chordates.
What is the modern day version of Haeckel's Ontogenetic Law? What was the original form?
The modern formulation is "Ontogeny (development) recapitulates embryonic states of ancestral forms." The original assertion was "Ontogeny recapitualtes phylogeny."
Give two examples from vertebrate evolution that illustrate the modern day version of Haeckel's Ontogenetic Law
Incorporation of gill arches into the jaw; fusion of upper jaw bones with bones enclosing the braincase; conversion of elements of the reptillian jaw (articular, quadrate) into mammalian middle ear ossicles.
What is the neotenic theory of chordate origins?
Chordates descended from free-swimming tunicate larvae that became sexually competent before settling and metamorphosing into sessile adults.
What is the evidence for the neotenic theory of chordate origins?
Anatomical features of free-swimming tunicate larva - principally the dorsal nerve cord and the notochord.
An important theme in early vertebrate evolution was progressive
integration of the visceral and somatic parts of the body. (Corrected 03/19/06)
Which of the following statements applies to the class Agnatha?
Lacked jaws.
Most classes of vertebrates are characterized by paired appendages. Which is not?
Agnatha (jawless fish)
Which of the following statements applies to Placoderms?
Included fearsome predators called arthrodires.
Which of the folling statements applies to Actinopterygians?
Are are also called ray-finned fish.
Which of the folling statements applies to Crossopterygian fishes?
Included species with labyrinthodont teeth.
hich of the following statements regarding lungs and air bladders is not true?
Air bladders of extant freshwater holostean fishes, Lepidosteus (gar pike) and Amia (bowfin) have a folded inner surface and are capable of some gas exchange.
The first fishes had a dorsal bladder unconnected to the gut. In Devonian times, this structure migrated ventrally and became connected to the gut making possible the evolution of the first lungs.
The evolution of the amniote egg freed early reptiles from the necessity of reproducing in water. Amniote eggs contain four extraembryonic membranes. Match each of the membranes to the corresponding function in the list below.
Amniote eggs contain four extraembryonic membranes. Match each of the membranes to the corresponding function in the list below.
1. Allantois
2. is a repository for dissolved embryonic wastes.
Amnion
5. surrounds the embryo with a "bag of waters."
3. Chorioallantoic (formed from parts of the chorion and the allantois)
3. serves as an embryonic lung.
Chorion
4. surrounds the amnion and the allantois.
5. Yolk sac
1. encloses the embryo's food supply.
Fick's Law holds that the rate at which gas diffuses across a membrane
is proportional to the difference in gas concentration on either side of the membrane.
In which of the following groups goes the oxygen-bearing medium pass unidirectionally over the gas exchange surfaces?
Birds
Counter-current systems are commonly used by vertebrates and other animals to maximize the exchange of substances across membranes, conserve heat, etc. With regard to heat conservation, give three examples.
1. Conservation of heat in the swimming muscles of so-called "hot fish."; 2. conservation of core temperature by preventing loss of heat throught the legs in wading birds; 3. conservation of heat in the thorax (thereby warming the flight muscles) in bees and certain moths.
With regard to the concentration of oxygen, blood flow through the lamellae of fish gills is counter-current to the flow of water over the lamellae. What is the functional significance of this arrangement?
Maximizes the transfer of oxygen from water to blood vessels in the lamellae.
Compare the flow of blood and the acquisition of oxygen in fish and insects.
Vertberates have closed circulatory systems, whereby deoxygenated blood is pumped forward by the ventral heart to the gills, where it is oxygenated. Thereafter, the blood flows to the tissues, where oxygen is exchaged for CO2. Finally, the blood re-enters the heart. In insects, the circulatory system is open. The colorless blood accumulates in a pericardial sinus, enters the dorsal heart and is then pumped forward by the dorsal aorta to various sinuses. Here the internal organs are directly bathed in the blood. Gas exchange is independent of circulation. Oxygen enters the animal through spiracles that connect directly to the external environment and is brought to the tissues via a series of branching trachea.
Discuss the transport of CO2 by mammalian erythrocytes.
CO2 is transported by red blood cells as bicarbonate ions, the formation of which is accelerated by carbonic anhydrase. In the tissues (high PPCO2), carbon dioxide diffuses into RBCs where it combines with water to form carbonic acid, H2CO3, which then dissociates into H+ and bicarbonate ion, HCO3-. In the lungs (low PPCO2), the process is reversed and carbon dioxide diffuses out of RBCs. The key to all of this are the reversible reactions
CO2 + H2O XH2CO3 X H+ + HCO3-

To a much lesser degree, CO2 is also transported in combination with de-oxygenated hemoglobin as carboxyhemoglobin.
Red blood cells are produced in the
Bone marrow.
Erithropoietin is produced in the
Kidney
he three principal mammalian blood cell types are
erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), and thrombocytes (platelets).
CO2-sensitive chemoreceptors are located in the
Medulla
CO2 is transported principally
As HCO3- by red blood cells.
The left-shifted oxygen dissociation curve of fetal hemoglobin reflects the fact that
Fetal hemoglobin has less affinity for DPG than adult hemoglobin. (Corrected 03/19/06)
Among mammals, oxygen dissociation curves
Are progressively shifted to the right as one goes from large species to small. This probably reflects the fact that per gram metabolic rates increase with decreasing body size.
Cheyne-Stokes respiration illustrates the general principle that
Introduction of time delays in feedback control loops can be destabilizing.
The maintainance of an internal environment consistent with proper physiological function is called.
homeostasis
The brine shrimp, Artemia is able to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions ranging from dilute sea water to the hypersaline conditions of the Great Salt Lake. It does so by being
Both an osmoconformer and an osmoregulator, depending on environmental conditions.
In addition to exchanging CO2 for oxygen, the gills of freshwater fish exchange
NH4+ for Na+
Nitrogenous wastes, ammonia, urea and uric acid, are the breakdown products of metabolizing proteins and nucleic acids. Energetically, the cheapest to manufacture is ammonia, and most bony fish lose this compound in the form of NH4+. By way of contrast, terrestrial animals principally excrete urea or uric acid, even though these compounds are more expensive to manufacture. The reason for this is that
Urea and uric acid are less toxic and can be concentrated to a greater extent before elimination thereby conserving water.
he vertebrate kidney is composed of ____. The proximal ______ filters the blood. The resulting filtrate, which lacks cells and large molecules, is concentrated in the distal ______s.
he vertebrate kidney is composed of nephrons. The proximal glomerulus filters the blood. The resulting filtrate, which lacks cells and large molecules, is concentrated in the distal renal tubules.
Role of Vascular systems-
-Move water
-Move nutrients
-Move sugar
What is a Gymnosperms
have narrow pits side by side to conduct water
Whats an Angiosperms
have straw like tubes that can send more water throughout the organism
Monocots
a single embryonic cotyledon
(grasses, cattails, lilies, orchids, and palms)
Eudicots
two cotyledons, and include the majority of
familiar seed plants