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114 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
cyanobacteria is only prokaryot that produces... via photosynthesis
oxygen
porkaryotes that DO NOT produce oxygen via photosynthesis
green sulfur bacteria. gram positive bacteria. purple bacteria
chloroplast of photosynthetic protests come from
once free living cyanobacteria
mitochondria and chlorolast group with...
eukaryotes and prokaryotes
universal design of photosynthetic structure includes...
antena, harvesting pigments, protein core reaction center
how is sugar removed to the cytosol
via phtotophate translocator, c02 fixation by rubisco is maintained/or increased
what are some advantages to moving to land?
stomata, gametangia, cuticles, pigments, thick cell walls
derived non-seed plats and seed plants share what synapomorphy?
tracheids
How are hornwarts different from liverworts and mosses?
They formsymbiotic associations with nitrogen filling cyanobacteria
Where do parts of flowers in agiosperms come from?
modifed leaves
Water movement from soil to the plant occurs from...
tension developed form the evaporative loss of water from leaves
Nitrogen is main limiting factor in plant communitities because...
plants need nitorgen to construct proteins
Life evolved the ability to transform light energy into chemical bonds used in metabolism at what time? and through the evolution of what?
3.6+ billion years ago; through the evolution of much of the glycolitic pathway
photosystem I and II can be found...
operating in isolation bacteria, and in eukaryotic photoautotrophic cells
What happens when sugars produced in the chloroplast ARE NOT removed to the cytosol via photophate translocator?
Calvin cycle will not operate; chloroplats fill with starch
Ecdysozoan lineage is characterized by...
A nonliving external covering (exoskeleton/cuticle)
An animal with an exoskeleton grows by...
periodically shedding its exoskeleton/replacing it larger one (molding)
Many members of several phyla of marine worms with thin cuticles are descendants of...
early slpit in acdysozoan lineage
Tough cuticles are found in memebrs of which two phyla
the horsehair worms and roundworms
Roundworms fall into which category?
parastites
Animals with rigid exoskeletons lack what for locomotion? How do they move?
cilia; have appendages that can be moved by muscles
Most reserachers agree that the arthropod groups are ...
monophyletic
Onychorophorans and tardigrades have what similar physical property? What are they similar to?
soft, unjointed leg; ancestral arthropods
What eras did trilobites flourish in? When did they become extinct?
Cambrain and Ordovician; Paleozoic
Name the three regions that divide the crustacean/insect body
head, thorax, abdomen
List some crustaceans
Shrimp, lobster, crayfish, crabs, sow bugs, sand fleas, etc
link Crustacean lineage to athropods
Crustacean lineage is ancestral to all arthropods
Where did the wings of insects come from?
dorsal branches of multibranchal ancestral apendages
what is a myriopod?
Many segments, many pairs of legs (centipede, milipede)
Where did protosome evolution take place?
oceans
Ecdysozoan lineage is characterized by...
A nonliving external covering (exoskeleton/cuticle)
An animal with an exoskeleton grows by...
periodically shedding its exoskeleton/replacing it larger one (molding)
Many members of several phyla of marine worms with thin cuticles are descendants of...
early slpit in acdysozoan lineage
Tough cuticles are found in memebrs of which two phyla
the horsehair worms and roundworms
Roundworms fall into which category?
parastites
Animals with rigid exoskeletons lack what for locomotion? How do they move?
cilia; have appendages that can be moved by muscles
Most reserachers agree that the arthropod groups are ...
monophyletic
Onychorophorans and tardigrades have what similar physical property? What are they similar to?
soft, unjointed leg; ancestral arthropods
What eras did trilobites flourish in? When did they become extinct?
Cambrain and Ordovician; Paleozoic
Name the three regions that divide the crustacean/insect body
head, thorax, abdomen
List some crustaceans
Shrimp, lobster, crayfish, crabs, sow bugs, sand fleas, etc
link Crustacean lineage to athropods
Crustacean lineage is ancestral to all arthropods
Where did the wings of insects come from?
dorsal branches of multibranchal ancestral apendages
what is a myriopod?
Many segments, many pairs of legs (centipede, milipede)
Where did protosome evolution take place?
oceans
What was the advantage of subdivision of the body cavity for insects?
better movement in water
The outer covering of ecdosozoans
ranges from very thin to very hard and rigid
primary suport for members of phyla of small worms
hydrostatic skeletons
why are roundworms abundant and diverse?
they are parasitic and free-living; eat wide variety of foods
arthropod skeleton composed of
chitin (mix of proteins and polysaccharide)
Which deutrosomes have three-part body plans?
Acorn worms, pterobranchs
pharyngeal basket is...
used by adult ascidians to capture food
pharnegal gill slits of chorades originallly functioned as sites for
both intake of oxygen and release of co2
key to vertebrate body plan
vertebral column where two pairs of apendages are attatched
in fishes, swim bladders evolved from
lunglike sacs
Why do amphibians lay eggs in water?
eggs quicly lose water and desiccate if dry
Why did bidealism evolve to human era
it is more efficient than quardrapedal locomotion, frees forlimbs to manipulate objects
How are monotremes different from other mamals?
they lay eggs
Describe echinoderms
Have pentadadially symetrical body plan, unique vascular system, calcified internal skeleton
where did jaws evolve from?
anterior gill arches
where did amphibians come from?
lung-fish ancestors
When/where did birds come?
175 mya from feathered dinosaur ancestors
How are mammals unique
suckle young with milk secreted by mammary glands
Difference between negative and positive feedback
Negative: corrects deviations from set point (transpiration); positive= amplifies responses (blood clot)
Difference between homeotherms and poikiliotherms
homeo= maintain constant body temperature; poi= no
Endotherm vs. Ectotherm
Produce metabolic heat to elevate temperature; enviroment makes heat
Where is vertebrate thermostat located?
hypothalamus
diffusion in animals
how respiratory gases (co2, o2) exchanged betwen body fluids and environment
Ways to adapt to maximize gas exchange
increasing surface area, maximizing partial presure gradiants (decrease thickness), ventilating outer surface with respiratory medium, perfusing inner surface with blood
Hemoglobin connects to...
ovygen in red blod cells
myoglobin serves as...
an 02 reserve in muscle. It also binds 02 and Po2.
c02 is tranferred in the blood principally as...
bicarbonate ions
As temperature rises, 02 content in water....
falls
increased altitude, ... the amount of 92
decreases
When the level of c02 rises, the rate of respiration ...
increases
In open circulatory systems, the blood or tissue fluid leaves ... and percolates through...
vessels; tissues
In closed circulatory systems, the blood is contained in...
a series of vessels
The evolutionary of the vertebrate heart has led to
an increasing seperation of blood that flows to the gas exchange organs and blood that flows to the rest of the body
How has the vertebrate heart evolved
two chambers in fishes to three in amphibians to four in crocodilians, mamals, and birds
systole vs. siastole
S= ventricles contratc; d=relax
describe red blood cells, platelits, and plasma
rbc= transport respiratory gasses, plat=blod clotting, plasma=mix of gases, ions, proteins, and molecules with
blood flow throug capillary beds are controlled by
autoregulatory mechanisms, hormones, and the autonomic nervous system
Blood pressure is controlled by
hormones vasopressin and angiotensin
animals are heterotrophs that...
derive their energy and molecular building blocks from autotrophs
For animals, food provides...
essential carbon skeletons that they cannot synthesize themselves
what is the difference between saprotrophs/detrtivores and filter feeders, herbivores, and carnovores
s/d depends on dead organic matter, filter= train aquatic envirnoment for small food items, h= plants, c= animals
long-term energy is stored in
fat
Aquatic vs. Terrestrial animal differences in elimiating nitrogenous wastes
a= diffusion acros gill membranes, t= converts it to uric acid/urea befoe excretion
Function of renin
activates agiotensin, which constructs blood vessels in kidney, releases aldosterone, which enhances water absorption
function of nephron
processes blood and turns filtrate to urin
ANP is...
atrial natriuretic peptide which causes increases excretion of salt and water
Deprivation experiment vs. Hybridization experiment
D= determines what is acquired by depriving animal of certain lesson; H= determines what is gentically acquired by mixing species
eusocial species include... in their social groups
sterile
Which achieve higher population densities? small individuals or large individuals
small
what influences species' ranges
speciation process, dispersonal ability, predators, and competition
age distribution of a population is determined by
timing of births and deaths within a population
commensalists are...
two organisms athat use the same resources when that resource is short in supply
What is the most abundant cell type in the human brain?
glial cell
within a neuron, information moves from... to ...
dendrite to cell body to axon
resting potential in neuron is due to
open K+ channels
Neurons communicate together at junctions called
synapses, where plasma membranes of two cells come close together
Action potential is...
rapid reversal in charge across a portion fo the plasma membrane
Chemoreceptors are...
recponsible for smell, taste, and sensing of phermones
Effectors are...
what enable animals to respond to information from their internal and external enironments. Effecotrs generate mechanical forces and cuase movement.
Microtubule vs. Microfilament
both regulate cell movement. tube= cilia, flagella; filament= allow for chape change and move
Smooth vs. Cardiac vs. Skeletal vertebrate muscle
Smooth=n contractile force for inner organs; cardiac= electronically connected , skeletol= bundles of muscle fiber, many nucleii
What is an ecosystem?
all organisms in an area and the physical environment in which they interact; Ecosystems are characterized by energy flow and structural linkages (trophic structure)
What is ecosystem ecology?
Is the central idea of ecosystems. It works under the context of Earth system science, climatology, and hydrology, and towards the mechanism of Physiological ecology, soil science, geochemistry, population ecology, and communit ecology.
What are the components of energetics?
1)Gross primary production (GPP): Total conversion of energy to usable form (ecosystem photosynthesis)
2) Net Primary Production (NPP): Fraction of GPP stored in plant biomass
3) Respiration (R): autotrophic and hetrotrophic
4) GPP= NPP + GEP (Gross Ecosystem Production)
4)NEE (net ecosystem exchange)= Respiration- GEP
What is the "interaction hypothesis" of community ecology?
A community is an assembly of close-knoit species; Species are locked together by interactions that cause communities to function as integrated units; Community composition is a function of strict “assembly rules”; F.E. Clements (around 1936)
What is the "individualistic hypothesis" of community ecology?
• Then how can there be “assembly rules” ?
– finite # of “strategies” for dealing with abiotic
extremes (low resources, etc).
– Due to the inter-relatedness of species
Major consequence from an individualistic view
• Initial events dictate the pattern of
replacement of species through time
following a disturbance
What promotes species coexistence?
niche overlap; "competition free space"; variation in space or time
What is the role of the niche?
small community of animals/plants; produces more local interactions
Given there is species coexistence, what drives the variation we see in biodiversity across the globe?
competition. diversity is beneficial because it results in stability and resilience.