Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
"The People Bomb"
Impact of 1 American greater then any other nation.
Population explosion.
1st, 2nd, 3rd world
1st - Western Nation
2nd - Communist/East
3rd - Neither, No govern.
Tom Malthus
"Malthusian Catastrophe"
Population is growing much faster then food supply.
overconsumption vs. overpopulation
overconsumption - using resources to quickly.
overpopulation - to many people using those resources.
epidemiologic & fertility transition
transition from high birth rates and death rates to low birth and death rates
cold pasteurization
X-Ray... Radiate meat to kill bacteria
World Health Organization

acting as a coordinating authority on international public health

mission "is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health"
primitive & modern stability
high birth/death rates

low birth/death rates
milk replacers
cows blood to replace milk for calves
scientific study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how these properties are affected by interactions between the organisms and their environment.
cassandra vs pollyanna
Cassandra - Doomsayer
Pollyanna - Rose-Colored glasses
tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of one's own culture
have enough food to feed the world, why are there starving?
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
Clean Water Act
eliminating water release of toxic amounts of toxic substances, eliminating additional water pollution by 1985, and ensuring that surface waters would meet standards necessary for human sports and recreation by 1983.
climax ecosystem
steady-state end-points in a given climatic zone
"Old Growth"
collective mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet
global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere (rocks), hydrosphere (water), and atmosphere (air)
An ecotone is a transition area between two adjacent ecological communities (ecosystems). It may appear on the ground as a gradual blending of the two communities across a broad area, or it may manifest itself as a sharp boundary line.
heterotroph is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. Contrast with autotrophs which use carbon dioxide as sole carbon source.
is the solid outermost shell of a rocky planet
Abiotic factors are geological, geographical and climatological parameters. A biotope is an environmentally uniform region characterized by a particular set of abiotic ecological factors.
mutually supportive relationships
an interaction between two species in which both species derive benefit : ex. Rhizobia (nitrogen fixater) and Legumes
a scenario in which the population of a living species exceeds the carrying capacity of its ecological niche.
slow/fast world
Categorization of countries/societies based on speed of life. Western = Fast, Aggricultural = Slow
Neo-malthusianism is a set of doctrines which have their precedent with Thomas Malthus's concept of limited resources keep populations in check and reduce economic growth. Current proponent of Neo-Malthusianism is the Club of Rome. Using Contraceptives for pop. control
Carl Pope
Executive Director of Sierra Club : Among his major accomplishments, Mr. Pope coauthored California Proposition 65 - promote clean drinking water and keep toxic substances that cause cancer and birth defects out of consumer products, the Safe Drinking Water and Toxic initiative of 1986
Demographic Transition
demographic transition is used to describe the transition from high birth rates and death rates to low birth and death rates that occurs as part of the economic development of a country from a preindustrial to a postindustrial economy.
ecoli, camplyobacter, salmonella
All bacterias are found in manure, found in/on meat. Causes intestinal problems. Growing anti-bacterial resistant.
mad cow disease
Prions - From cows eating waste products from slaughtering process. Incurable.
demographic trap
A population that has exceeded the national or regional carrying capacity is said to be caught in a demographic trap. A country that must import food or starve.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - Recomends use of non-human used antibiotics in farm production.
first basic principle of ecosystem sustainability
For sustainability, ecosystems use sunlight as their source of energy
second basic principle of ecosystem sustainability
ecosystems dispose of wastes and replenish nutrients by recycling all elements
3 basic principle of ecosystem sustainability
The size of the consumer population is maintained so that overuse does not occur
4 basic principle of ecosystem sustainability
Ecosystem show resilience during a disturbance
5 basic principle of ecosystem sustainability
Ecosystems depend on biodiversity
environmental science
science of the interactions between the physical, chemical, and biological components of the environment, including their effects on all types of organisms but more often refers to human impact on the environment.
Taking care of the land entrusted to you.
Environmental Protection Agency - charged with protecting human health and with safeguarding the natural environment: air, water, and land
Large funds set aside to clean up areas.
trophic levels
trophic level is the position that an organism occupies in a food chain - what it eats, and what eats it.
range of tolerance
The entire span of environmental factors a particular species can survive
Highly/Medium/Low developed countries
Paul Ehrlich
Julian Simon
argue that there are little or no limits to growth and that the present economy is projected to expand without significant bounds.
Ecological Society of America
Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation
Competitive Exclusion Principle
two species that compete for the exact same resources cannot stably coexist
Carrying capacity
the measure of an environment, or habitat, to indefinitely sustain the population of a particular species in a steady-state population density