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33 Cards in this Set

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social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
attribution theory
the theory that we tend to give a causal explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
attitude
a belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
foot-in-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent.
Ex. when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
conformity
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid dissaproval
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept other's opinions about reality
social facilitation
improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their effors toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
deindividualism
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
group polarization
the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion with the group
groupthink
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
ingroup
"Us"- people with whome one shares a common identity
outgroup
"them"- those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup
ingroup bias
the tendency to favor one's own group
scapegoat thoery
the theory that prejudcie offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
just-world phenomenon
the tendency of people to believe the world isjust and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
aggression
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
frustration-aggression principle
the principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate aggression
conflict
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
social trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-intersest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
mre exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
passionate love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
compasionate love
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
equity
a condition in which peoploe receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
self-disclosure
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
altruism
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
subordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require thier cooperation
GRIT
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction- a strategy designed to decrease international tensions